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Plants  

1.  INTRODUCTION - OVERVIEW -  Biology as a science deals with the origin, history, process, and physical characteristics, of plants and animals: it includes botany,  and zoology. A study of biology includes the study of the chemical basis of living organisms, DNA.  Other related sciences include microbiology and organic chemistry.  See the "Online Biology Book"  an excellent reference!! The main difference between a lifeless clump of chemicals, and a living life form, composed of the same chemicals, is;  Information and access to an energy source.  The word science comes from a Latin word scientica, which means knowledge, or information.   Science is a process of systematically gathering detailed information and gaining exact knowledge.  That vital  information includes; how the basic elements are organized and how they utilize energy.   We do not know all the "life" information secrets but we are learning more every day.  

The three biological life cycles, are; Zygotic meiosis, Sporic meiosis, and Gametic meiosis,

Amoeba - one basic life form.

Amoebas (and there are many different kinds) feed by phagocytosis (the engulfing and ingesting of foreign particles or waste matter by phagocytes)--they flow around their prey (usually a smaller cell) and engulf it. Organism that eat other organisms are usually called "consumers".  The amoeba's cell membrane then fuses with itself, trapping the prey in a "food vacuole" where it will be digested.

Amoeba image courtesy of
BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES


David Bolinsky animates a cell

 


Famous scientist quote:
"Those engaged in the arts and sciences, Most Gracious Emperor Charles, find many serious obstacles to the exact study and successful application of them.  In the first place, no slight inconvenience results from too great separation beween branches of study which serve for the perfection of one art."  Andreas Vesalius (1514 - 1564) wrote "The Anatomy of the Human Body" published in 1543.

On-Line Biology Book: Table of Contents

  1. INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY
  2. CHEMISTRY I: ATOMS AND MOLECULES
  3. CHEMISTRY II: WATER AND ORGANIC MOLECULES
  4. CELLS I: ORIGINS
  5. CELLS II: CELLULAR ORGANIZATION
  6. TRANSPORT IN AND OUT OF CELLS
  7. CELL DIVISION: BINARY FISSION AND MITOSIS
  8. CELL DIVISION: MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
  9. LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
  10. REACTIONS AND ENZYMES
  11. ATP AND BIOLOGICAL ENERGY
  12. CELLULAR METABOLISM AND FERMENTATION
  13. PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  14. INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS
  15. GENE INTERACTIONS
  16. DNA AND MOLECULAR GENETICS
  17. HUMAN GENETICS
  18. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
  19. CONTROL OF GENE EXPRESSION
  20. PLANTS AND THEIR STRUCTURE
  21. PLANTS AND THEIR STRUCTURE II
  22. FLOWERING PLANT REPRODUCTION: Flower Structure
  23. FLOWERING PLANT REPRODUCTION: Fertilization and Fruits
  24. PLANT HORMONES AND NUTRITION
  25. ANIMAL CELLS AND TISSUES
  26. ANIMAL ORGAN SYSTEMS AND HOMEOSTASIS
  27. THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
  28. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  29. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY
  30. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  31. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  32. THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  33. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  34. THE MUSCULAR AND SKELETAL SYSTEMS
  35. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  36. THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM
  37. DEVELOPMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY
  38. THE MODERN VIEW OF EVOLUTION
  39. PALEOBIOLOGY: FOSSILS AND TIME
  40. PALEOBIOLOGY: THE PRECAMBRIAN: LIFE'S GENESIS AND SPREAD
  41. PALEOBIOLOGY: THE EARLY PALEOZOIC
  42. PALEOBIOLOGY: THE LATE PALEOZOIC
  43. PALEOBIOLOGY: THE MESOZOIC, AGE OF CYCADS AND DINOSAURS
  44. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: CLASSIFICATION
  45. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: VIRUSES
  46. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: BACTERIA AND ARCHAEANS
  47. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: PROTISTS: STEM EUKARYOTES
  48. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: FUNGI
  49. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: NONVASCULAR PLANTS AND NONSEED VASCULAR PLANTS
  50. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: SEED PLANTS
  51. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: ANIMALS I
  52. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: ANIMALS II
  53. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: ANIMALS III
  54. HUMAN EVOLUTION
  55. POPULATION ECOLOGY
  56. COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS
  57. THE BIOSPHERE AND MASS EXTINCTIONS
  58. GLOSSARY
  59. DIVERSITY IN BIOLOGY

Overview of biology   Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biology

Biologists study life over a wide range of scales:

 

Major branches of biology

Aerobiology -- Anatomy -- Astrobiology -- Biochemistry -- Bionics -- Biogeography -- Bioinformatics -- Biophysics-- Biotechnology -- Botany -- Cell biology -- Chorology -- Cladistics --Cryptozoology -- Cytology -- Developmental biology -- Disease (Genetic diseases, Infectious diseases) -- Ecology (Theoretical ecology, Symbiology, Autecology, Synecology)-- Ethology --Entomology-- Evolution (Evolutionary biology) -- Evolutionary developmental biology ("Evo-devo" or Evolution of Development) -- Freshwater biology -- Genetics (Population genetics, Quantitative genetics, Genomics, Proteomics) -- Histology -- Immunology -- Infectious diseases -- Pathology -- Epidemiology -- Limnology -- Marine biology -- Microbiology (Bacteriology) -- Molecular Biology -- Morphology -- Mycology / Lichenology --- Myrmecology --- Neuroscience (Neuroanatomy, Neurophysiology, Systems neuroscience, Biological psychology, Psychiatry, Psychopharmacology, Behavioral science, Neuroethology, Psychophysics, Computational neuroscience, Cognitive science)-- Oncology (the study of cancer) -- Ontogeny -- Paleontology (Palaeobotany, Palaezoology)-- Phycology (Algology) -- Phylogeny (Phylogenetics, Phylogeography) -- Physiology -- Phytopathology -- Structural biology -- Taxonomy -- Toxicology (the study of poisons and pollution) -- Virology -- Xenobiology -- Zoology

As you can see there are far more than 25 branches of biology.  There are also several related disciplines.

Related disciplines

Medicine -- Physical anthropology

Biology encompasses a broad spectrum of academic fields that are often viewed as independent disciplines. Together, they study life over a wide range of scales:

and speculatively through xenobiology at the level of life beyond the Earth.

People and history

Famous biologists -- History of biology -- Nobel prize in physiology or medicine -- Timeline of biology and organic chemistry

Reference source :  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biology

Wikipedia BIOLOGY Basic Topics:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biology_basic_topics

FREE BIOLOGY VIDEOS


Biology

Covers topics seen in a first year college or high school biology course.

  1. Introduction to Evolution and Natural Selection
  2. Ape Clarification
  3. Intelligent Design and Evolution
  4. Evolution Clarification
  5. Natural Selection and the Owl Butterfly
  6. DNA
  7. Variation in a Species
  8. Chromosomes, Chromatids, Chromatin, etc.
  9. Mitosis, Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
  10. Phases of Mitosis
  11. Phases of Meiosis
  12. Embryonic Stem Cells
  13. Cancer
  14. Introduction to Heredity
  15. Punnett Square Fun
  16. Hardy-Weinberg Principle
  17. Sex-Linked Traits
  18. Bacteria
  19. Viruses
  20. ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
  21. Introduction to Cellular Respiration
  22. Oxidation and Reduction Review From Biological Point-of-View
  23. Oxidation and Reduction in Cellular Respiration
  24. Glycolysis
  25. Krebs / Citric Acid Cycle
  26. Electron Transport Chain
  27. Oxidative Phosphorylation and Chemiosmosis
  28. Photosynthesis
  29. Photosynthesis: Light Reactions 1
  30. Photosynthesis: Light Reactions and Photophosphorylation
  31. Photosynthesis: Calvin Cycle
  32. Photorespiration
  33. C-4 Photosynthesis
  34. CAM Plants
  35. Parts of a cell
  36. Diffusion and Osmosis
  37. The Lungs and Pulmonary System
  38. Red blood cells
  39. Circulatory System and the Heart
  40. Hemoglobin
  41. Anatomy of a Neuron
  42. Sodium Potassium Pump
  43. Correction to Sodium and Potassium Pump Video
  44. Electrotonic and Action Potentials
  45. Saltatory Conduction in Neurons
  46. Neuronal Synapses (Chemical)
  47. Myosin and Actin
  48. Tropomyosin and troponin and their role in regulating muscle contraction
  49. Role of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum in Muscle Cells
  50. Anatomy of a muscle cell
  51. Role of Phagocytes in Innate or Nonspecific Immunity
  52. Types of immune responses: Innate and Adaptive. Humoral vs. Cell-Mediated
  53. B Lymphocytes (B cells)
  54. Professional Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) and MHC II complexes
  55. Helper T Cells
  56. Cytotoxic T Cells
  57. Review of B cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells
  58. Inflammatory Response
  59. The Kidney and Nephron
  60. Secondary Active Transport in the Nephron
  61. Glucose Insulin and Diabetes
  62. Blood Sugar Levels
  63. A1C Levels
  64. Heart Disease and Heart Attacks
  65. Thrombo-emboli and Thromboembolisms
  66. Stenosis, ischemia and heart failure
  67. Strokes

 

Parts of an animal cell. MUST SEE VIDEO!

>Please visit our 101 Science Store<


Agriculture Research Service


Biological aide Ellie Giron (left) and ARS chemist Phyllis Johnson prepare a sample for analysis at the ARS Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

Photo by Bruce Fritz


Spark your interest in biology by watching these Public Broadcasting Service NOVA programs.
PBS NOVA Cancer Study - Cancer Warrior
 
PBS NOVA - Cracking the Code of Life

PBS NOVA - Dying to be Thin

See this and more at PBS.ORG

Biology Online - Information in the life sciences in the form of tutorials, references, an online dictionary of biology terms and a biology forum.


2.  THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD - The scientific method consists of stating a problem then; (1) make observations, (2) formulate a hypothesis, (3) design an experiment, collect and interpret the data, consult prior knowledge, and (4) reach conclusions.  

A good experiment has a large sample; it is controlled so that only one variable is assessed, it  is placebo controlled, and it is conducted in a double blind manner.  Scientific discovery is not always as well planned as the scientific method may seem to suggest.  Sometimes new knowledge comes simply from being in the right place at the right time or from being particularly aware of the unusual.  The opposite of the scientific method (and its organized planning) is discovery by "accident".

A hypothesis is a guess as to why something happens. Observations lead to questions regarding the event. Why is the sky blue? How does gravity affect falling objects? In attempting to answer a question about the nature of the world, a scientist will form a hypothesis (or a guess) regarding the question's answer.  Experiments, data gathering and study will then help the scientist to reach a conclusion.

References for the Scientific Method:  

    1. http://teacher.nsrl.rochester.edu/phy_labs/AppendixE/AppendixE.html

Introduction to the Scientific Method
The scientific method
The Scientific Method
sci.skeptic FAQ Scientific Method
EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCE PROJECTS: An Intermediate Level Guide
Scientific Method - Janice VanCleave's Science Fair Handbook ...
The Scientific Method
The Myth of the Magical Scientific Method
The Scientific Method

3.  WATER - Living things are built almost entirely of organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and water.  Water is vital to life because it forms the basis of many body fluids, it is imbibed by structures such as seeds, and it controls temperature regulation.  

Water Biology
H2O - The Mystery, Art, and Science of Water: Biology and Water
Lesson 1: The Properties of Water
Groundwater
Chemistry Tutorial
the title!
2004 GRC on Interfacial Water In Cell Biology
Environmental Biology Sequence - Ecosystems
CHEMISTRY II: WATER AND ORGANIC MOLECULES
Freshwater Ecology Tutorial

WATER CYCLE

http://www.dkrz.de/dkrz/broschuere-eng/research/water.html
http://www-k12.atmos.washington.edu/k12/pilot/water_cycle/grabber2.html

http://www.epa.gov/region07/kids/wtrcycle.htm

http://mbgnet.mobot.org/fresh/cycle/

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/followdrip.html

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Water/

http://www.uen.org/utahlink/lp_res/TRB018.html

Ecology 

Evolutionary Ecology
Biology
Ecology Biology - 1025 of the best sites selected by humans
Ecology, Biology and Public Use
Ecology/Biology page of ULTIMATE SCIENCE FICTION WEB GUIDE
Indiana University of Pennsylvania - Biology Faculty
Principles of Ecology home page
Plant Ecology
Chapter 3: Principles of Ecology - Biology: The Dynamics of Life
US Long Term Ecological Research Network - Home

ENERGY AND THE EARTH 
Energy
Energy Waves
Energy Quanta
Radiant Energy
Solar Radiation
Temperature
Energy Movement
Energy Interaction
Emittance
Transmission
Energy Balance


THE ATMOSPHERE 
Atmosphere
Atm. Composition
Atm. Interactions
Atm. Pressure
Atm. Temperature
Coriolis Effect
Atm. Circulation


THE BIOSPHERE  
Biosphere
Global Geometry
Ecosystems
Ecology
Aquatic Biomes
Land Biomes
Ecosystems
Cycles
Populations
Food Chain
Soils
Erosion
Weathering


THE TERRASPHERE 
Terrasphere
Earth Structure
Earth Composition
Tectonics
Faulting
Earthquakes
Volcanoes


THE HYDROSPHERE 
Water
Water Cycles
Groundwater
Seawater


CLIMATE AND CLIMATE STUDIES 
Climate
Climate Examples
Climate Factors
Climate Variations

Ecology Resources
Biological Pest Control
Conservation Biology
Endangered Species
Fish & Wildlife Biology
Marine Biology

More Biology Stuff
Animal Adjectives
Biology Dictionary
Biology Careers
Biology Graphics Gallery
Free Biology Images
Science Fair Projects
Why Files: Life Sciences

Teaching Biology
Biology Experiments
Biology Lesson Plans
Teaching Evolution

4.  EVOLUTION -  

For information on the Cambrian period: 

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cambrian/camb.html 

For information on the "tree of life" (quite relevant to taxonomy): 

http://tolweb.org/tree/phylogeny.html

For general information on evolution: 

UNDERSTANDING EVOLUTION - FOR TEACHERS: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/

http://www.aaas.org/spp/dser/evolution/

http://www.talkorigins.org/ 

Evolutionary Ecology

Cells, Embryos, and Evolution (John Gerhart, Marc Kirschner)

Evolutionary biology: Ferns reawakened


What is Evolution?
http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/evolution-definition.html
Biology Links:  Evolution
http://mcb.harvard.edu/BioLinks/Evolution.html

Evolution in the above links is based on current scientific evidence.

Famous scientist quote:
"When on board H.M.S. Beagle as naturalist, I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of the organic beings inhabiting South America, and in the geographical relations of the present to the past inhabitants of that continent."  Charles Darwin (1809 - 1882) developed the natural selection theory.


DINOSAURS

See 72,500 image results for dinosaurs
http://www.teezz.co.uk/dinosaurs/dinosaur-1341/index.shtml 

Zoom Dinosaurs - EnchantedLearning.com
BBC - Science & Nature - Dinosaurs
Dinosauria On-Line
The Dinosauria
Dinosaurs
Dinosaurs: Facts and Fiction
Honolulu Community College Dinosaur Exhibit
Discovering Dinosaurs
New Scientist Special Report on Dinosaurs

Dinosaur Links
Find Dinosaur Pictures Dinosaurs Illustrations
Discovery Channel :: Dinosaur Guide
Scholastic.com | Teachers: Dinosaurs
Dinosaurs: The Natural History Museum's Dino Directory
Meet the Dinosaurs
Dinosaurs At The Smithsonian
Dino Russ's Lair
Dinosaurs
Download-a-Dinosaur


Diversity of life

PROTIST    Protist Chart I    Protist Chart II

An overview of microscopic pond life - protozoa
Chlorophyta Oedogonium (Filamentous)

Chlorophyta Spirogyra (Filamentous)
Chlorophyta Volvox (Colonial)
Chrysophyta Diatoms
Diatoms
Euglenophyta Euglena
Flagellated protozoa
Kingdom Protazoa http://mclibrary.nhmccd.edu/taxonomy/protista.htm
Parasitology: Parasitic Protozoa text
Protist Chart I   
Protist Chart II 
Protozoa - Introduction

Protozoa as Human Parasites

PROTOZOA Some Common Freshwater Types
protozoans
Spirogryra (stage 3)
Spirogyra

Spirogyra (stage 1)
Spirogyra (stage 2)
Volvox Oedogonium (oogonia)
Welcome to the Society of Protozoologists
Euglenophyta Euglena
Chrysophyta Diatoms
Chlorophyta Volvox (Colonial)
Chlorophyta Oedogonium (Filamentous)
Chlorophyta Spirogyra (Filamentous

(See our Microspcopy page for more protist information.)


 

Try this search facility - just click on the first letter of what you need information on.
A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z


GEOLOGICAL TIMELINES

Timeline credit: http://www.auburn.edu/academic/classes/zy/0301/comparative_home/comparative_home.html

Geological Timeline Expalined - ETSU
Geological Timeline
Timeline with Evolutionary Dates
More Timeline Dates
Timeline in Text Form

FOSSIL INFORMATION

USGS Information on Fossils and Fossil Hunting
Fossil Image Database


NEW! Periodic Chart of the Elements with correlation to their health aspects - http://www.lenntech.com/periodic-chart.htm
Each element contains a link to a page that explains its
chemical properties, and its health effects and environmental effects,  In four languages

Taxonomy/Anthropology - For a good tutorial check

Taxonomy Detailed information and examples and links to database searches are found on our Microscopy Page Paragraph 3.

Classification online textbook

5.  PROTEIN - A study of life starts with chemistry.  All life forms are composed of basic chemical elements.  Atomic elements prefer to exist as molecules.  Earth life thrives on water.  Common water.  The human body for example is about 3/5ths water.  Life is built up from some very common materials.  There is one substance though that is more complicated and vital to life.  It is protein.  A Dutch biochemist, named Mulder, first used the word "protein" in 1838.  He got the word form a Greek word meaning "holding first place."  A protein molecule is quite large compared to fat or sugar molecules.  Although proteins are complicated they consist the elements of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur.  Some parts of the human body contain more than other parts but it exists is some amount in all parts of the body and it is vital for life to exist.  There is no living organism that does not contain protein.  Viruses for example contain a complicated type of protein called nucleoprotein.  Nucleoprotein contains a type of substance called nucleic acid  in association with the protein.  When proteins are exposed to an acid the protein breaks apart into smaller molecules.  These smaller molecules are called amino-acids.  Millions of different proteins can be formed from the combinations of different amino-acid molecules.  Some common proteins are:  keratin, fibroin, collagen, and the important and numerous globular proteins.

Protein Database http://www.expasy.ch/

Difference Patterson Tutorial; PR 613: Protein Structure and Function -Structural Biology I  http://asterix.jci.tju.edu/brenner/pr613.html   Excellent!!

Biology I Interactive Animations
Beginner's Guide to Molecular Biology
DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis: The Revolution in Biology
ExPASy Proteomics Server
Welcome to the Bioanalytical Research Group's Homepage
Cellular Biology: Cell Structures and Functions
3 Proteins
SDSC Biology Workbench
news@nature.com - Prion proteins may store memories
Cell Biology Tutorial
BD Biosciences Clontech - Innovative Biological Products for the
Systems Biology at PNNL
Amino Acids and Protein
BIOLOGY 107 Lecture Notes. Amino Acids and Proteins
BBC - AS Guru - Biology - Biological Molecules - Proteins
Protein Synthesis
WH Proteins
... 47) Enzyme Kinetics (5) Food Proteins (3), Manufacturers (26) Prions (5), Proteomics
(184) Structure (48). Related Categories: Science > Biology > Cell Biology ..
.

6.  ENZYMES - The word enzyme was first used in 1878 and comes from two Greek words meaning , "in yeast."  All enzymes are globular proteins.  Enzymes control body chemistry.  The enzymes of the human body work by means of surface catalysis (http://www.encyclopedia.com/).  That is the surface of the enzyme enables other molecules to react in a manner they would not without the surface of the enzyme present.  The enzyme being the catalyst is not changed in any manner from the action of the protein.  The human body contains only a small quantity of enzymes but even this small quantity is sufficient.  They are important to many functions including food digestion.   Click HERE (http://www.agron.missouri.edu/enzyme.html) for the enzyme database.  For an explanation of what an enzyme is click here http://www.purchon.com/biology/enzymes.htm

MIT Biology Hypertextbook: Enzyme Mechanisms
Energy, Enzymes, and Catalysis Problem Set
 
Enzymes and aerobic respiration
Enzyme nomenclature database http://ca.expasy.org/enzyme/
ATP AND BIOLOGICAL ENERGY
Energy, Enzymes, and Catalysis Problem Set
BiologyMad A-Level Biology
Enzymes
Study Room - Biology - Biochemistry and Cells - Enyzmes
By Level> A2 and A-Level> Biology> Proteins and Enzymes Essays and
Enzyme Nomenclature
Molecular Biology Databases - Enzymes and Pathways
GCSE Enzyme Coursework and Enzyme Experiments. Catalysts, pepsin
BIOLOGY 107 Lecture Notes. Energetics and Enzymes
Biology 111 Enzyme Lecture Notes
Molecular Biology Enzymes
BBC Education - AS Guru - Biology - Biological Molecules
Biocompare Buyer's Guide - Enzymes (Cell Biology)
Assignments for Biology 241
ExPASy Proteomics Server
Examstutor.com - an A level biology resource for students and

7.  CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTIONS -  Most cells are small and can be seen only with a microscope.  Some, however such as egg cells of birds, can be seen with the naked eye.  Others, like nerve cells, may be very small in some of their dimensions, but extremely long; a single human nerve cell may be as much as 3 or 4 feet long, and anImage from http://www.biosci.uga.edu/ elephant's nerve cell may be even longer.  To say that cells are generally small is not saying much, however, because even among microscopic cells there is a wide range in size. Biologists took it for granted that cells are bounded by a membrane - the plasma membrane, as it is often called.  It had been known for al long time that lipids  (http://www.encyclopedia.com/)  and many substances soluble in lipids move with relative ease between the cell and the surrounding medium.  From this it was deduced that the outer boundary of the cell, the cell membrane, must contain        (        NOTE:  Cell image from http://www.biosci.uga.edu/          )   lipids, and that fat-soluble substances could move across the membrane by being dissolved in it.  The cell membrane is not simply an envelope giving mechanical strength and shape and some protection to the cell, though these functions are important.  It is an active component of the living cell and playing a complex  and dynamic roll in life processes.  It regulates the traffic in materials between the precisely ordered interior of the cell and essentially unfavorable and potentially disruptive outer environment.    The processes include diffusion,  (http://www.encyclopedia.com/) osmosis,  (http://www.encyclopedia.com/) and phagocytosis.   (http://www.encyclopedia.com/) Phagocytosis is when the material engulfed is in the form of large particles or chunks of matter.  Usually portions of the cell flow around the material, enclosing it within a chamber.    When the engulfed material is liquid or consists of very small particles, the process is often termed pinocytosis.   (http://www.encyclopedia.com/)  Indicating a slight difference in the way the material is engulfed.  

Cell Biology Links - Click on the links below for detailed information.

Cell Structure and Function Quiz

Non-vascular plants (Mosses, Liverworts)

Biological Diversity 5
Nonvascular plant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nonvascular Plants
Primitive Plant Lesson
CNPS Statement of Policy - Nonvascular Plants
nonvascular plants

protonema (pl. protonemata) the filamentous (moss) or thallose (fern) gametophyte stage of non-seed plants  

Moss protonemata

Everything you need to know about Protonema

        pro-to-ne-ma

The green filamentous growth that arises from spore germination in liverworts and mosses and eventually gives rise to a mature gametophyte.

Protonema: http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/Images/Others/Bryophyta/

 

Moss gametophytes and sporophytes
Moss capsule
Moss antheridia
Moss archegonia
Marchantia thallus
Marchantia archegonia
Marchantia antheridia

Cell Images

Cellular Respiration

 

Whole Process


Ligustrum Leaf Cross Section

Evergreen ligustrum (often called privet) shrubs and trees thrive throughout the state of Florida. They are widely used as landscape shrubs, hedges, and specimen trees. Many species and cultivars are available with a diversity of leaf colors, leaf forms, and growth habits. All selections are tolerant of heavy pruning, which makes them suited for clipped hedges. Because of a rapid growth rate, many require pruning to maintain them within bounds. The white flowers are attractive during late spring and early summer. However, the pungent odor may be objectionable.

Ligustrum leaf detail
Leaves and Leaf Anatomy
Ligustrum - Leaf mines and leaf miners
Investigating Microscope Slide Staining Lab Activity Resource
Plant Micrographs / ligustrum leaf.JPG
Ligustlf.htm
Ligustrum or Privet
ligustrum leaf - Google Search

 8.  NUCLEUS -  Within most cells (though not of bacteria and blue-green algae), the largest and one of the most conspicuous structural areas is the nucleus, the control center of the cell.  The nucleus plays the central role in cellular reproduction, the process whereby a single cell undergoes cell division and forms two new cells.  The nucleus directs the metabolic activities of the living cell and guides the life of the cell as long as it lives.  Biologists attach so much importance to the nucleus that they even have a special name, cytoplasm, for all the protoplasm other than the nucleus; the nucleus and the cytoplasm  can thus be thought of as the two major subdivisions of protoplasm.

nucleus (biology) - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about nucleus
nucleus (biology)
MSN Encarta - Nucleus (biology)
TRT DEMO
The Cell Nucleus
The Nucleus - Biology Files
The Cell Nucleus I
Journey into the Cell: The Nucleus

9.  CHROMOSOMES - The chromosomes are elongate, threadlike bodies clearly visible only when the cell in undergoing division.  They are composed of nucleic acid and protein.  The chromosomes bear, apparently in linear arrangement, the basic units of heredity, called genes.  It is the genes that determine the characteristics of cells, as they  are passed form generation to generation, and that act as the units of control  in the day-to-day activities of living cells.  They are the code units of the transmission of bits of information from parent to offspring, and for the determination of the enzymes that so precisely regulate the myriad interdependent chemical reactions of life.  

Chapter 13: Genes and Chromosomes - Biology: The Dynamics of Life
Chromosomes and Gender
Mitosis
The Cell Cycle & Mitosis Tutorial
Karyotyping Activity
Cosmological cell biology
Dr Chromo's school: chromosomes structure
The Cell Nucleus II
Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: Mitosis Interactive Java
EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY: ON CHROMOSOMES AND SEX DETERMINATION

10.  DNA TUTORIAL  

DNA in a Nutshell!  

DNA - From the Beginning

Primer on Molecular Genetics from the U.S. Department of Energy

NEW! FREE Software (pDRAW32) to draw DNA Analysis Charts    http://www.acaclone.com/   pDraw32 DOWNLOAD software - pDRAW32 lets you enter a DNA name and coordinates for genetic elements, such as genes, to be plotted on your DNA plots.  pDRAW32 lets you "clone" fragments of DNA generated by virtual digestion with restriction enzymes and optionally blunted at one or both ends. Up to 3 fragments may be cloned at a time (can you replicate that in the lab?). Each fragment may be inverted relative to its original orientation. Genetic elements contained in the cloned fragments are transferred to the cloned DNA. (...and much more!)

We found an excellent Genetics tutorial: Morgan.  You will have to register to view it but it is free. http://morgan.rutgers.edu/MorganWebFrames/htmldocs/register.html

  http://www.nhgri.nih.gov/ - National Human Genome Research Institute)

DNA Laboratory Activities - The Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation
http://www.woodrow.org/

Isolation of DNA from Onion
DNA without tears!

The Spread of AIDS
A simple experiment using phenopthalein and tubes of water to demonstrate the epidemiology of HIV-1

Separation of a Starch-Glucose Mixture Using Gel Filtration
Fun with Sephadex G-25 columns!

The Cookbook Translator
Students "translate" a lima bean DNA extraction procedure

Protein Assays: Bio Rad and Page Gels
Learn how to use the spectrophotometer and micropipette

Phenotypic and Genotypic Changes in Bacteria
Bacterial tranformations using antibiotic resistant plasmids

Rainbow Electrophoresis
Introduction to electrophoresis

Using Yeast as an Ultraviolet Light Measurement Tool
Measuring UV using yeast cells...adapted from KSU's Yeast Project

Karyotype Alternatives
Two activities for karyotyping: a paper cut out method and a lab usinghuman cells

Cloning of Plasmid and Spinach DNA
Procedure to ligate fragments of genomic DNA from spinach into a vector plasmid; this recombinant DNA is then used to transform Escherichia coli cells.

The Cloning of Plasmid and Spinach DNA
Inserting a spinach genomic clone into a plasmid

Chick Embryology
A couple of easy techniques which can be used to observe the development of a chick embryo

Culturing Plants from Embryonic Plant Tissue
The purpose of this lab is to grow plants in tissue cultures and to see what effect the different concentrations of hormones have on embryodevelopment

Protoplast Production
This activity allows students to strip away the cell walls of plant cells (using enzymes) and then observe the resulting spherical protoplasts

Comparison of Four-, Six-, and Eight-bp Cuts in Calf Thymus DNA
Using restriction enzymes to digest thymus DNA

Demonstrating an Epidemic
An experiment using bacterial cultures to simulate a small scale "epidemic"

Cell Transformation in Tobacco Leaf Disks
A relatively simple plant transformation experiment

Active Ingredient Screening Test for Plants
Students simulate tests done in the field to determine the active ingredients in plants

Ecological Bioassay of Copper Sulfate in Daphnia Magna
This ecological laboratory uses the biotechnological tool of the bioassay to demonstrate the effects of toxic substances on living organisms

PENTOSES - What are pentoses? What are the roles of pentoses in DNA and RNA molecules?

Pentoses are carbohydrates made of five carbons.

The DNA molecule is made of a sequence of molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is formed by the association of one pentose called deoxyribose with a phosphoric acid and a nitrogen-containing base (A, T, C or G). RNA is also formed by a sequence of nucleotides. The RNA nucleotides are made by association of one ribose (a pentose) with one phosphoric acid and one nitrogen-containing base (A, U, C or G).

So pentoses are fundamental components of DNA and RNA.


11.  VIRUS - Viruses are infectious particles that consist of a DNA or RNA molecule packaged in a protein capsid.  A virus can multiply only inside a host cell, whose genetic mechanisms it subverts for its own reproduction.  Both the structure of the virus and its mode of replication differ widely between viruses.  The usual outcome of a viral infection is the lysis (destruction) of the infected cell, with the release of viral particles.  Some viruses, however, can instead become integrated into the host chromosome, where their genes are replicated along with those of the host cell.  Because viruses sometimes carry host DNA sequences from one species to another, they make possible an occasional mixing of different gene pools during their evolution.  Virulent viruses usually kill the cells they infect.  Other viruses, although also often able to kill cells, frequently have a more subtle effect.  These viruses are called temperate.  Virus infected bacteria which appear un-infected but have the hereditary ability to produce phage, are called lysogenic.  (Phage - indicating something that devours another)  The lambda genome has two set of genes, one controlling lytic growth, the other lysogenic growth.  Upon infection, genes promoting both lytic growth and lysogenic integration are expressed.  Which pathway succeeds is determined by the competing action of these early gene products and by the influence of host factors.  The lambda phage is a well studied temperate phage which can grow in synchrony with its host (E.coli) in its lysogenic phase, or go into a lytic phase, when its genome is replicated many times by a rolling circle mechanism.  The lytic cycle is that part of the life cycle of a temperate phage in which it multiplies rapidly, destroying its host and releasing many copies into the medium.  The pathway genes in the lambda immunity region are:  cro, Or, and cI.  The lambda system provides one of the best studied examples of a genetic switch.  Two back-to-back promoters in the region of cI and cro control the genetic switch.  When cI is present it activates its own synthesis and blocks transcription of cro.  When cI is inactivated, transcription of cro can occur, resulting in the lytic cycle.  The cI protein combines with the operator, Or.  Transcription is the process by which an RNA polymerase produces single-stranded RNA complementary to one strand of DNA or, rarely RNA.  Polymerase are enzymes producing a polynucleotide sequence, complementary to a pre-existing template polynucleotide.  DNA polymerase requires a primer from which to start polymerization whereas RNA polymerase does not.  Polymerization is the combination of several molecules to form a more complex molecule, usually by addition or a condensation process.  It is sometimes a reversible process.

VIRONS - http://www.pinkmonkey.com/studyguides/subjects/biology-edited/chap14/b1400001.asp

PIRONS - http://www.miamisci.org/youth/unity/Unity1/Lubens/pages/viroidprion.html

See the 101science.com VIRUS LINKS Page

BACTERIA

See the 101science.com Bacteria Links Page.

Biology I Reference Sites

Microbes.info - The Microbiology
Information Portal.

GRAM STAIN TABLE

    Gram Negative Stain - Red or pinkish

    Gram Positive Stain + Blue or violet

 - - -

    Gram Stain Samples - click this line

    Why does it stain this way?

The color differences are sometimes subtle so learn to recognize the differences!

Gram Stain
Gram stain Introduction
Gram-staining Procedure
Gram Stain Tutorial
Gram Stain
Bacteria
Bite Sized tutorials, the gram stain
Gram Stain Index
Cell Differentiation by Gram's Stain
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Endocervical Gram stain

BIOLOGICAL HISTOLOGICAL SPECIMEN STAINING

Famous scientist quote:
"The sciences gain by mutual support.  When, as the result of my first communications on the fermentations in 1857-1858, it appeared that the ferments, properly so-called, are living beings, that the germs of microscopic organisms abound in the surface of all objects, in th air and in water; that the theory of spontaneous generation is chimerical; ..." Louis Pasteur (1822 - 1895)  developed a method of inoculation of cattle for anthrax proving the efficacy of vaccinations.


MATHCAD for Biology

search mathcad.com
Mathematics Archives - Topics in Mathematics - Mathematical ...
Computational Molecular Biology: An Algorithmic Approach ...
BookFinder.com: Book Directory
Computational Molecular Biology: An Algorithmic Approach ...
BioDirectory.Net - Biological Sciences Search Engine
ScienceDaily -- Browse Topics: Science/Math/Software/Mathcad
Mathsoft Education: Mathcad in Various Disciplines
The Interdisciplinary Laboratory: An Integration of Chemistry ...
Scientific Web - Softwaredescriptions
Linking chemistry and biology through database - Adept Scientific
Mathcad Library
[PDF] A Mobile Computing Classroom
Quantitative Biology
[PDF] Population Biology: Life Tables & Theoretical Populations
Windows Lab Software List for 2003-2004 - LC IS
Winter Academic Term 2002 Course Guide - Biology (Biology) ...


GENERAL BIOLOGY LINKS - Homework Help

Click on the names in the List below for detailed information.

 

Anthropoda

Introduction to the Arthropoda
Arthropoda
ADW: Arthropoda: Information
Arthropoda introduction - Introduction
Phylum Arthropoda
Arthropoda
Open Directory - Science: Biology: Zoology: Arthropoda
Natural Perspective: Joint-Legs (Phylum Arthropoda)
M28.htm

Jellyfish

Those That Sting - Visit the Oregon Coast Aquarium's virtual jellyfish exhibit to learn about the jellyfish's biology, life cycle, relatives and even see live pictures on the JellyCam. Also has two classroom activities, one K-4 and the other 5-12.

Introduction to the Ctenophora - Information on ctenophores ("comb jellies") with links to cnidarian and jellyfish information.

Jellyfish: Millions of Years of Stinging Success - CNN report on jellyfish with a Quicktime movie.

Invasion of the jellyfish

Sea Stars/Starfish

Discovery Center Critters: Armored Sand Star - Brief information on the armored sand star's biology, habitat/range, diet, reproduction, and some interesting facts.

Discovery Center Critters: Bat Star - Brief information on the bat star's biology, habitat/range, diet, reproduction, and some interesting facts.

Discovery Center Critters: Fragile Star - Brief information on the fragile star's biology, habitat/range, diet, reproduction, and some interesting facts.

Discovery Center Critters: Giant Spiny Sea Star - Brief information on the giant spiny sea star's biology, habitat/range, diet, reproduction, and some interesting facts.

Sea Stars - Information on its description, habitat, diet, breeding, etc.


Marchantia Sporophyte

Nikon MicroscopyU: Confocal Image Gallery - Marchantia Sporophyte

sporophyte

Biology2pg1

[PDF] PowerPoint Presentation

Liverwort Bryophyte Lab

Microslides Naugra scientific, Human Anatomical Models - Prepared

BSA Plant Images Online - Marchantia archegoniophore w/sporophyte

Bryophyta, Laboratory Notes for BIO 1003 and 3001

[PDF] Laboratory 4: PHYLA HEPATOPHYTAAND ANTHOCEROTOPHYTA HYLUM EPATOPHYTA


Crayfish Dissection for Biology 110 - Respiratory System and Liver
Crayfish - External
Respiratory System Parasites of the Dog and Cat (Part I): Nasal ...
101 Deuterosomes - www.101science.com
Study Guide for Third Lab Exam
Crayfish dissection

THE NATURE OF SCIENCE - VARIOUS GENERAL AND SPECIFIC TOPICS
http://www.gis.net/%7Esjp3/bio.html


LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS 


ONLINE EXAMINATION OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

http://www.getbodysmart.com/


PROTOZOA Some Common Freshwater Types

Curiosities of Biological Nomenclature Mark Isaak
Basic Genetics
Introduction to DNA Extractions
Cell Biology Laboratory Manual - very good
BioChemistry Made Very Easy!
Laboratory Safety Guideline
FREE Software for Biology http://www.btinternet.com/~ablumsohn/mbiol.htm

Invertebrates - Sponges/Porifera - Cindarians - Bilaterians - Protostomia vs. Deuterostomia - Lophotrochozoans vs. Ecdysozoans - Glatworms/Platyhelminthes - Annelids - Mollusks/Mollusca - Roundworms/Nematoda - Arthropods - Chordates

ECOLOGY LINKS

The Ecology WWW Page  Lot's of links here alphabetically
http://www.ecology.com/
  General
http://conbio.rice.edu/vl/ 
Ecology and Biodiversity
http://beheco.oupjournals.org/
   Behavioral Ecology
http://www.evolutionary-ecology.com/
  Evolutionary Ecology

FOOD CHAIN

http://library.thinkquest.org/11353/food.htm  Difference between Food chain and Food web explained.
http://www.planetpals.com/foodchain.html

http://www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/contents/4e.html

CARBON CYCLE

http://library.thinkquest.org/11226/
http://library.thinkquest.org/11226/why.htm?tqskip=1

http://www.whrc.org/science/carbon/carbon.htm

http://www.gcrio.org/CONSEQUENCES/vol4no1/carbcycle.html
Long Term Effects
http://www.esd.ornl.gov/iab/iab2-2.htm

NITROGEN CYCLE

http://www.geog.ouc.bc.ca/physgeog/contents/9s.html
http://clab.cecil.cc.md.us/faculty/biology/jason/nitrc.htm

http://esa.sdsc.edu/tilman.htm
  Human Issues
http://www.actwin.com/fish/mirror/begin-cycling.html

http://www.pubnix.net/~spond/filter/nitrogen.html
  New aquarium cycle

SULPHUR CYCLE

http://gfd.gly.bris.ac.uk/enviro-geochem/envgeo/lecture5/lecture5.html Very Detailed
http://www.xrefer.com/entry/463649

http://www.dur.ac.uk/d.h.powell/resources/ACLEC5/sld006.htm

http://www.dur.ac.uk/d.h.powell/resources/ACLEC5/sld005.htm

http://www.ftns.wau.nl/lettinga-associates/content/technology3.html

WATER CYCLE

http://www.dkrz.de/dkrz/broschuere-eng/research/water.html
http://www-k12.atmos.washington.edu/k12/pilot/water_cycle/grabber2.html

http://www.epa.gov/region07/kids/wtrcycle.htm

http://mbgnet.mobot.org/fresh/cycle/

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/followdrip.html

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Water/

http://www.uen.org/utahlink/lp_res/TRB018.html

ENERGY CYCLE

http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/102spring2001_Web_projects/lewis/energycy.html
http://www.earth.nasa.gov/science/water.html

http://www.earth.nasa.gov/research/energy/

http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/ceres/brochure/clouds_and_energy.html

http://calspace.ucsd.edu/rotary3/staticCycles/energy1.html

http://dl.clackamas.cc.or.us/ch106-07/metaboli.htm
Metabolic Energy Cycle
http://www.eren.doe.gov/erec/factsheets/geothermal.html
Geothermal
http://www.envsci.rutgers.edu/~gimenez/SoilsWater01/Lecture1/tsld007.htm
Simplified

Energy Pyramid

http://www.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/F/FoodChains.html
http://www.digital-recordings.com/publ/publife.html
  Flow of Energy
http://www.stevetrash.com/pyramid.htm

http://www.sturgeon.ab.ca/rw/Pyramids/pyrakind.html
  Different kinds of pyramids
http://www.geocities.com/SunsetStrip/Alley/3041/sld008.htm

Experiments

ABLE: Selected Articles Online
Science Kit and Boreal Laboratories - Laboratory Experiments in
Biolab Home Page
Biology Laboratory Manual | Selection Experiments in Flowering 
Biology Laboratory Manual | Controlled Experiments in Science
Creative Biology Experiments for the Teaching Laboratory
Laboratory Experiments
Boreal Laboratories: On-line Catalog: Laboratory Experiments in 
Biology Experiments
[Regents Prep Living Environment] Laboratory: Introduction

KREBS CYCLE & KEGG METABOLIC PATHWAYS

Metabolic Pathways Wall Chart 

You can access the individual images by clicking in a reduced image of an entire section of the wall chart (use the linkS below).

KREBS Cycle - The Citric Acid Cycle http://www.apjohncancerinstitute.org/physician-2.htm
Metabolic Pathways Chart  http://www.sigma-aldrich.com/saws.nsf/Pages/sg_lp_enz_metabolic_pathways?OpenDocument
KEGG METABOLIC PATHWAYS
http://www.genome.ad.jp/kegg/metabolism.html
Citrate cycle (TCA cycle) - Reference pathway
http://www.genome.ad.jp/kegg/pathway/map/map00020.html
KREBS (TCA / CITRIC ACID) CYCLE  http://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/chem227/metabolism/kreb/kreb.htm
International Union of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (IUBMB)http://www.tcd.ie/Biochemistry/IUBMB-Nicholson/
The Complete Citric Acid Cycle  http://www.accessexcellence.org/AB/GG/citric_Cycle_a.html
Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle  http://esg-www.mit.edu:8001/esgbio/glycolysis/dir.html
Citric Acid Cycle  http://www.rit.edu/~pac8612/Biochemistry/503(703)/content.html
Krebbs Cycle  http://www.halfhollowhills.k12.ny.us/Prog/Scie/APbioweb/respira.htm
Respiration  http://www-plb.ucdavis.edu/courses/f01/PLB 11/PLB11-99/Respiration/respiration.htm
Basic Concepts of Metabolism
www.blc.arizona.edu/interactive/metabolism2.95/metabolism.html

Krebs Cycle
http://www.sc2000.net/~czaremba/explanations/cellresp.htmlGlycolysis 
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION http://www.cat.cc.md.us/biotutorials/energy/oxphos.html
Biochemical Networks

Metabolic Pathways Chart
The Scientist - Metabolic Path ways Chart: An All-Time Best- ...
Intro Cell Biol Lab
Chart of Important Metabolic Products
TAAS Spring 2000 End-of-Course Biology Examination
Screen Images from Mitochondria Lab
http://www.csun.edu/~bby44411/346pdf/krebs1.pdf


STEM CELL RESEARCH

Stem Cells: A Primer, National Institutes of Health, May ... A Primer
NIH: News: Stem Cell: Stem Cells; Scientific Progress and ...
News
Stem Cells  Papers
PhRMA Genomics: A Global Resource
Scientific American: Science and the Citizen: Stem Cells Come ...
Interrogatory on NRO  The Truth About Stem Cells
Adult Stem Cells Growing Strong
CNN - Researchers isolate human stem cells in the lab - ...


COMPARATIVE ANATOMY

Comparative Embryology

Comparative Embryology of Vertebrates
Embryo Image Gallery
Human Fish Chick Comparison Images

Embryonic Development

Medicine

Medicine:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicine

Medical/Health Terminology from Healthopedia.com
- Online Medical Assisting Degrees
- URL: http://www.top-online-colleges.com/Online-Medical-Assisting-Degrees.htm
- Description: If you enjoy caring for people and are intrigued by a job where you will constantly learn and interact with people, than learn more about online medical assisting degrees. As a medical assistant, you will work closely with a physician and perform clinical tasks as well as work on administrative tasks

Healthopedia.com - Medical resource provides comprehensive and reliable information from trusted sources. Find your topic by broad group:

Medical Encyclopedia
Diseases and Conditions
Medical Symptoms
Medical Tests & Exams
Surgeries & Procedures
Injuries & Wounds
Diet & Nutrition
Special Topics
Pictures & Images
Drugs & Medications
Quick Drug Information
Detailed Drug Information
Combined Index
Health Centers

Demographic Groups
Children's Health
Men's Health
Senior Health
Women's Health
Health and Wellness
Abuse and Violence
Alternative Medicine
Food Nutrition and Metabolism
Injuries and Safety
Sexual Health
Wellness and Lifestyle
Medical Directory
Health & Medical News

Body Location & Systems
Addiction and Substance Abuse
Blood Disorders and Lymphatic System
Bones Joints and Muscles
Brain and Nervous System
Cancers and Tumors
Cardiovascular (Circulatory System)
Digestive System
Disabilities
Ears and Hearing Disorders
Endocrine Disorders
Eyes and Vision
Genetics and Birth Defects
Heart Diseases
Immune System
Infections (Infectious Diseases)
Mental Health (Mental Disorders)
Mouth and Teeth (Oral and Dental)
Nose Diseases and Sinuses
Reproductive System
Respiratory System (Lungs and Breathing)
Skin Hair and Nails
Throat Disorders
Urinary System & Kidneys

Frequently Requested Topics:
AIDSAlcoholismAllergiesArthritisAsthmaBreast CancerCholesterolCongestive Heart Failure (CHF)Coronary Artery DiseaseDepressionDiabetesEating DisordersExercise and FitnessFirst AidGERDHands and FeetHeadacheHeart AttackHigh Blood PressureMenopauseOsteoporosisPoisoning and ToxicologyPregnancy and ChildbirthQuitting SmokingSkin ConditionsSleep DisordersSTDsStressStrokeWeight Control and ManagementWorksite and Environmental Health

ANATOMY - GENERAL

Anatomy 

Comparative Anatomy

Flower Anatomy

Human Anatomy 

Human Anatomy Online - InnerBody.com
Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body
The National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project
Virtual Hospital: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section
Virtual Hospital: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic 
Human Anatomy
Human Anatomy at EnchantedLearning.com
Human Anatomy http://www.bio.psu.edu/faculty/strauss/anatomy/biology29.htm

Human Biology

Muscle Tables http://www.ptcentral.com/muscles/
Human Muscles

Superficial Muscles Tutorial
AE Living Skeleton: a Tour of Human Bones
Human Bones Matching Game
Carboniferous human bones -- an evaluation
Chart of Human Bones: Front View
The Human Bones & Muscles
Anatomy of the Human Heart
Chemicals & Human Health
Human Biology Notes & Slides
Human Biology Tutorials
Human Digestive System
Human Diseases, Health, Nutrition
Human Endocrine System

(See "Medicine" above)


BIOLOGY NEWS SECTION! 

  "Biotech" NEWS.   

"Cancer" NEWS.   

"Consumer Health" NEWS.

 "Environmental" NEWS.      


ZOOLOGY

What is zoology anyway?

The study of animals.

The branch of biology that studies and classifies animals and animal life. It is a branch of biology that is concerned with the scientific study of animals, including their biology, distribution, and identification and including the study of animals - mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, insects, spiders, and mollusks (including mussels).

The science and history of the animal kingdom, including its king, the House Fly (Musca maledicta). The father of Zoology was Aristotle, as is universally conceded, but the name of its mother has not come down to us. Two of the science's most illustrious expounders were Buffon and Oliver Goldsmith, from both of whom we learn (L'Histoire generale des animaux and A History of Animated Nature) that the domestic cow sheds its horn every two years.

OK, OK enough of the definitions - now tell me some zoology details.  I want details please.

A Zoology Tutorial

Online Field Guides 

Amphibians
Birds
Butterflies
Fishes
Insects
Mammals
Native Plants
Reptiles
Seashells
Seashore Creatures
Spiders
Trees
Wildflowers

 
Animals - Animal Kingdom Sites

University of Michigan - Zoology
BiologyBrowser.org
Department of Zoology University of Toronto
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology
University of Cambridge: Department of Zoology
Zoology - Academic Info
Museum of Comparative Zoology
Physiological and Biochemical Zoology

General animal kingdom sites:

Animals: http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/edsci.htm

For more specific sites:
Mitosis  Glandular tissue  Oral tissue  Epithelium  Bone  Connective tissue
Muscle  Nervous tissue  Blood  Circulatory system  Haemopoiesis
Integument  Respiratory system  Digestive system  Digestive glands
Excretory system  Female reproductive system  Male reproductive system
Endocrine system  Sensory structures
Acanthocephala

Annelida
Hirudinea Oligochaeta  Polychaeta  Polycheata

Arthropoda
  Arachnida  Cephalocarida  Chelicerata  Crustacea  Diplopoda  Insecta
Malacostraca  Merostomata  Myriapoda  Picnogonida  Remipedia  Trilobita  Uniramia

Brachiopoda
Bryozoa
Cephalochordata
Chaetognatha

Chordata
  Agnatha  Amphibia  Ascidiacea  Aves  Cephalaspidomorphi  Chondrichthyes
Condrichthyes  Mammalia  Myxini  Osteichthyes  Reptilia  Tunicata  Vertebrata  
Cnidaria  Anthozoa  Cubozoa  Hydrozoa  Scyphozoa  
Ctenophora

Echinodermata  Asteroidea  Crinoidea  Echinoidea  Holothuroidea  Ophiuroidea
Gastrotricha
General
Hemichordata  Ascidiacea  Enteropneusta  Graptolithina  Pterobranchia
Insecta  Diptera  Ephemeroptera  Homopter  Lepidoptera  Odonata
Kinorhyncha
Loricifera
Mesozoa
Mollusca  Aplacophora  Aplocophora  Bivalvia  Caudofoveata  Cephalopoda
Cestoda  Gastropoda  mixed  Monoplacophora  Polyplacophora  Scaphopoda
Trematoda

Nematoda
Secernenta
Nemertea
Onychophora
Phoronida
Placozoa
Platyhelminthes  Cestoda  Monogenea  Trematoda  Turbellaria

Porifera  Calcarea  Demospongiae  Hexactinellida

Prokaryote
General
Rhombozoa
Rotifera
Sipunculata
Tardigrada
Trilobita
Urochordata  Ascidiacea
Vertebrata  Agnatha  Amphibia  Aves  Chondrichthyes 

General
Mammalia  Osteichthyes  

BIRDS
Cornell
Britannica  
About Birding
  
About Bckyrd Birds

The Aviary
  Vertebrate Flight  
StudyWeb
 
HC Birds
The Life of Birds

Birding Birdwatching and Wild Birds at About
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
Birds-Zoom School-Enchanted Learning Software
BirdsnWays Guide to Pet Birds, Parrots & Exotic Birds Care & 
Cornell Lab of Ornithology
Birds Australia / RAOU Home (our nest)
Wild Birds Unlimited - backyard bird feeding, bird feeders, retail 
Peterson Field Guides(R)
Birds Of Britain - Monthly Web Magazine for Birdwatchers

FISH
Ichthyology
  Britannica  Fish Base  Ocean Link  Fish
Sharks
  FINS Aquarium  US Fish & Wildlife  Marine Biology
HC Fish
  About  Virtual Library

MAMMALS
Britannica
  Zoological Record  ZR Mammalia  UC Berkeley
Hall of Mammals
  Electronic Zoo  Marine Mammals
Mammalogy
  SciQuest Zoology  HC Mammals
Open Directory

REPTILES
Herp Links
  Britannica  Sea Turtle  Basking Spot
Dinosaurs
  Age of Reptiles  StudyWeb  HC Reptiles

General animal kingdom sites:
ACHOO Syndrome (Autosomal Dominant)
AIDS Information
AIDS Information -- NOVA Site, Great Information
American Society for Microbiology
Amphibian Embryology Tutorial
Anatomy Tutorial
Herpetology Links
Antibiotic Resistance
Big Picture Book of Viruses
Birth Defects Fact Sheets

Butterflies

Biosis
  
Zoological Records
  National Zoo  Animal Bytes
Electronic Zoo
  NetVet  Tree of Life  Animal Network
Biological Lab
  Open Directory  HC Zoology  Snap
HISTOLOGY Tutorial Online http://www.uoguelph.ca/zoology/devobio/210labs/histo1.html
Virtual Embroy - Online Tutorial http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/eduweb/virtualembryo/db_tutorial.html
Zoology Dissections Online
http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/units/sel/bio/dissect.html
http://mel.lib.mi.us/science/k-12anim.html
http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/edsci.htm
BIOSIS Internet Resource Guide for Zoology
UMMZ Home Page
Department of Zoology University of Toronto
UBC Department of Zoology
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology
Welcome! Embryology Tutorial
 Main Menu
Teach Online: tutorial in zoology - Make Money Teaching tutorial ...

 

ANGIOSPERM

 

NEMATODA

For more specific sites:
Mitosis  Glandular tissue  Oral tissue  Epithelium  Bone  Connective tissue
Muscle  Nervous tissue  Blood  Circulatory system  Haemopoiesis
Integument  Respiratory system  Digestive system  Digestive glands
Excretory system  Female reproductive system  Male reproductive system
Endocrine system  Sensory structures   Acanthocephala
Annelida Hirudinea Oligochaeta  Polychaeta  Polycheata
Arthropoda
  Arachnida  Cephalocarida  Chelicerata  Crustacea  Diplopoda  Insecta
Malacostraca  Merostomata  Myriapoda  Picnogonida  Remipedia  Trilobita  Uniramia
Brachiopoda
Bryozoa
Cephalochordata
Chaetognatha
Chordata  Agnatha  Amphibia  Ascidiacea  Aves  Cephalaspidomorphi  Chondrichthyes
Condrichthyes  Mammalia  Myxini  Osteichthyes  Reptilia  Tunicata  Vertebrata  
Cnidaria  Anthozoa  Cubozoa  Hydrozoa  Scyphozoa  
Ctenophora
Echinodermata  Asteroidea  Crinoidea  Echinoidea  Holothuroidea  Ophiuroidea
Gastrotricha
General
Hemichordata  Ascidiacea  Enteropneusta  Graptolithina  Pterobranchia
Insecta  Diptera  Ephemeroptera  Homopter  Lepidoptera  Odonata
Kinorhyncha
Loricifera
Mesozoa
Mollusca  Aplacophora  Aplocophora  Bivalvia  Caudofoveata  Cephalopoda
Cestoda  Gastropoda  mixed  Monoplacophora  Polyplacophora  Scaphopoda
Trematoda
Nematoda
Secernenta
Nemertea
Onychophora
Phoronida
Placozoa
Platyhelminthes  Cestoda  Monogenea  Trematoda  Turbellaria
Porifera  Calcarea  Demospongiae  Hexactinellida
Prokaryote
General
Rhombozoa
Rotifera
Sipunculata
Tardigrada
Trilobita
Urochordata  Ascidiacea
Vertebrata  Agnatha  Amphibia  Aves  Chondrichthyes 
General
Mammalia  Osteichthyes  
Reptilia

Famous scientist quote:
"There is only one genus of man and this genus is unique in its order.  Since the [natural] history of man interests us most directly and should stand as the basis of comparison to which we submit the accounts of all other animals, we shall treat it in greater detail." 
Georges Cuvier (1769 - 1832) is the father of comparative anatomy and paleontology, and animal classifications. 

Amphibians
Loads of information on amphibians. Includes a tutorial on amphibian embryonic development, amphibian pictures and more.
Birds

Information on bird identification, bird songs, pictures, clipart and more.
Bird Behavior
Information on speech, mating habits, migration and other behavioral characteristics exhibited by birds.
Did You Know?: Animals
Discover some interesting facts about animals.
Mammals
Learn about the characteristics that differentiate mammals from other vertebrates.
Primates
Information and resources pertaining to primates. Includes images of different primate species.
Reptiles
Learn about turtles, lizards, snakes and other reptiles. Includes wonderful images of various reptiles.
Marine Biology
Get information on how to become a marine biologist or search a database that contains over 2,000 marine species.

Zoology Tutorials

Embryology Tutorial Main Menu
Amphibian

ANATOMY - GENERAL

A Resource for k-12 Anatomy and Biology Science Online
Christine Peters - Biology - West Valley College
Zoology Science Kits to explore animal anatomy - biology science 
Dr. Koop - Anatomy/Biology - Diseases and Conditions, Treatments
LEAF ANATOMY - BIOLOGY 2402 IMAGE DATABASE
Amazon.com: Toys / Imaginarium / Age Ranges / 8 Years & Older
Animation Factory: :: Animations :: Science :: Anatomy Biology
Comparative Chordate Anatomy (Biology 301)
Biology > Anatomy in the Yahoo! Directory
Virtual Frog Anatomy - Biology Archives

Anatomy Tutorial

Anatomy 

Comparative

Human Anatomy 

Human Anatomy Online - InnerBody.com
Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body
The National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project
Virtual Hospital: Atlas of Human Anatomy in Cross Section
Virtual Hospital: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic 
Human Anatomy
Human Anatomy at EnchantedLearning.com
Human Anatomy http://www.bio.psu.edu/faculty/strauss/anatomy/biology29.htm

Human Biology

Muscle Tables http://www.ptcentral.com/muscles/
Human Muscles

Superficial Muscles Tutorial
AE Living Skeleton: a Tour of Human Bones
Human Bones Matching Game
Carboniferous human bones -- an evaluation
Chart of Human Bones: Front View
The Human Bones & Muscles
Anatomy of the Human Heart
Chemicals & Human Health
Human Biology Notes & Slides
Human Biology Tutorials
Human Digestive System
Human Diseases, Health, Nutrition
Human Endocrine System

(See "Medicine" above)


BOTANY

What is Botany? http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Botany

English/German Botany Dictionary: http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/dict/engdeufr.htm

Botany Encyclopedia of Plants and Botanical Dictionary.
Internet Directory for Botany
World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Botany (Biosciences)
Botanical Society of America: A non-profit membership Society ...
Biology
The Internet Directory for Botany - Subject Category List
Journal of Experimental Botany
Botany online - The Internet Hypertextbook: Contents
Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History ...

Plants

Plants http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/Plants.html#chlorophyta
Plant Parts Identified - Drawings of parts - EXCELLENT
Do not miss this site
      
Botany Encyclopedia of Plants and Botanical Dictionary.
Internet Directory for Botany
World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Botany (Biosciences)
Botanical Society of America: A non-profit membership Society ...
The Internet Directory for Botany - Subject Category List
Biology
Journal of Experimental Botany
Botany online - The Internet Hypertextbook: Contents
Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History ...

VASCULAR PLANT SYSTEMATICS!!  (Be sure to click on the subjects in the left column to explore this great site.)

PLANT SYSTEMATICS!!
Vascular Plant Families, UH Botany

ISB: Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants
Vascular Plant Types Family Checklist at The New York Botanical
Conspectus of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar Project
ATLAS OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF UTAH
Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Wisconsin
Vascular Plant Family Nomenclature
Species in Parks: Flora and Fauna Databases (Information Center
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Data and Publications
Vascular Plant Image Library - Summary listing - 'A' Families - [ Translate this page ]

Non-vascular plants (Mosses, Liverworts)
Biological Diversity 5

Nonvascular plant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nonvascular Plants
Primitive Plant Lesson
CNPS Statement of Policy - Nonvascular Plants
nonvascular plants
Moss protonemata
Moss gametophytes and sporophytes
Moss capsule
Moss antheridia
Moss archegonia
Marchantia thallus
Marchantia archegonia
Marchantia antheridia

FLOWERS Flower Images   -    Excellent Quality Images
Great Plant Escape - Flower part
Great Plant Escape - What are the parts of a flower?
Flower Anatomy Printout - EnchantedLearning.com
The parts of a flower
Flower Parts
World Builders 1 Lesson 8 Parts of a Flower E Viau CSUJLAreprochar
The parts of a flower
You Grow Girl | The Perfect Flower
Information Sheet 9, Parts of Flowers
Indentifying Plants and Flowers

Bryophyta Anthocerophyta Hepatophyta
Dicotyledons Aceraceae Asclepiadaceae Asteraceae Cucurbitacea Fagaceae Geranaceae Leguminoseae Nympheaceae Papaveraceae Ranunculaceae Rosaceae Rutaceae Solanaceae Tiliaceae
General
Gymnosperms Coniferophyta
Monocotyledons Iridaceae Liliaceae Lilliaceae Palmeae Poaceae
Prokaryote General
Pterophyta Lycophyta Psilophyta Rhyniophyta Sphenophyta
Rhodophyta

Biology Page 2 Plants

Photosynthesis & Plants

 

Light Absorption

SEEDS

Seed Biology, Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, The 
SEED-BIOLOGY-L Main Page
Seed Biology at U of KY
Field Studies of Seed Biology
Eve's Seed.com
People Working in Seed Biology and Technology
The Seed Biology Place
Research Topics: Seed Biology at U of KY
SEED-BIOLOGY-L Main Page
Seed Biology
Field Studies of Seed Biology

SEEDLESS

Seedless Plants
SEEDLESS PLANTS — Infoplease.com
Seedless Plants
Vascular Seedless Plants
Seedless Plants
Seedless Plants,how to grow
seedless plants
seedless plant - definition of seedless plant by the Free Online ...
Seedless Plants - Ask.com
Seedless Plant Life Cycles | eHow.com
Mader/Biology 6/e -- Student Activities
Seedless Plants
vascular plants


Science Calculators and Conversion Factors

101science.com Calculations and Conversions Page

BioMath Calculators -http://www.promega.com/biomath/default.htm
Carbon 14 Dating Calculator
Ideal Gas Law Calculator
Metric/SE conversion calculator
Physical Constants and Conversions
Physical Science Reference Data
BioScience Calculators
http://martindalecenter.com/Calculators3_2_Bio.html
Science/Biology/Math Courses Online FREE
http://www.enc.org/features/lessonplans/?ls=fe

MUST HAVE!  TI-83 Plus BETTER!  TI-89 BEST!  Voyage 200
     

Molecular Biology Software - Reviews and Download links

12.  DICTIONARIES - Word Meanings - It is most important to be able to understand scientific words and terms when reading technical material. 

Nuclear Terminology
The Language of the Nucleus, on-line edition.
The world's largest nuclear glossary. http://glossary.dataenabled.com/

AllRefer.com - Reference and Encyclopedia

Browse encyclopedia articles in all areas of topics within earth & environment, history, literature & arts, health & medicine, people, philosophy & religion, places, plants & animals, science & technology, social science & law, sports & everyday life, and more. Includes country studies and North America gazetteer.

AllRefer Health

Medical resource provides extensive information on diseases, symptoms, tests, surgeries, injuries, nutrition, poisons, and special topics. Focuses on family and community health.

<< Glossary & Dictionary Links 
Look up words here
  - Each line of letters is from a  different source so check them all. >>

Try Biology-Online.org
Biology-Online.org  http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary.asp

or try this one....
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Kimball's Biology Pages  http://www.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/
or this one......
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Bio Informer http://www.angelfire.com/nv/biology/dictionary.html
or this one.....
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
PAE Glossary  http://www.mhhe.com/sciencemath/forestryenviron/pae/glossary.html
or this one.....
A B C D E F G I J K L M N O PQ R S T U V W X Y Z
Michael Shaw  http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/science/biological_sciences/labgloss.html
or this one.....
A
-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z


IMAGES  - Identify biological specimens from images.

BIODIDAC

A bank of digital resources
for teaching biology
Organismal Biology
Human Biology
Histology

 
 

Microscopic Image Search Engines

General Biology Image Search Engines

Animal - Nature - Plant Image Links

NOAA Photo Library  Transcendent Nature - by Kurt Ross
 Vacular Plant Image Gallery  Noble Foundation Plant Image Gallery
 The Great Outdoors (Wildlife)  Minerals and Gem Sites (JR Hotsites)
 Polar Photos (help for keywords)  Frame 37 Photographers (Landscapes)
 NeoFlora (largest plant database)  Animal Images (JR Hotsites)
 Glacier Image Database  Forestry Images
 CalPhotos: California Plants & Habitats (20,000 images)
 Agricultural Research Service Image Gallery (inc. fruit)
 Delta Wildlife & Nature Photography
 Acadia National Park (in Maine)
 

Microsopic Images From University of Oregon

Leaves

Leaves, Botany Course, Master Gardener Training, Extension Service 
ASK-A-SCIENTIST Archive - Botany
Botany 101 -- Leaves
UCMP Glossary: Botany
Botany online: Features of Flowering Plants - Leaves
Plant Glossary - EnchantedLearning.com
AZ Master Gardener Manual: Plant Parts and Functions
Yahoo! Directory Biology > Botany
botany/mentha
Ligustrum leaf x-sec.
Nerium (Oleander) leaf x-sec.
Cluvia leaf x-sec.
Pinus leaf x-sec.
Juglans (Walnut) cleared leaf
Ammophila cleared leaf
Tradescantia stomata
Simple leaf, pinnate venation
Simple leaf, palmate-reticulate venation
Compound leaf, bipinnate
Compound leaf, palmate

Roots

 

Raphanus (Radish) root tip whole mount
Zea (Corn) root tip longitudinal sec.
Ranunculus (Buttercup) root x-sec.
Ranunculus (Buttercup) young root x-sec.
Ranunculus (Buttercup) mature root x-sec.
Smilax root x-sec.
Smilax root endodermis x-sec.
Lateral root origin
Tilia root x-sec.

Herbaceous Roots

Herbaceous Stems

Woody Stems / Roots

Woody Stems

Tilia stem x-sec.
Pinus stem x-sec.
Sambucus lenticel
Pinus wood x-sec.
Pinus wood tangential sec.
Pinus wood radial sec.
Quercus (Oak) wood x-sec.
Quercus (Oak) wood radial sec.
Quercus (Oak) wood tangential sec.

Embryos

Dicotyledon embryo
Monocotyledon embryo
Haeckel's Embryos

Cells, Embryos, and Evolution (John Gerhart, Marc Kirschner)
Did You Know? - Cloning Without Embryos
Developmental Biology ONLINE! Index Page
WWW Developmental Biology Links
Another Way To Look at Serially Sectioned Embryos
Molecular Biology - whole mount in situhybridization in early
Developmental Biology Online: The Emergence of Embryos
Unseating Naturalism: Recent Insights from Developmental Biology
Axolotls - Biology

Fruits

Definitions of fruit:

  • the ripened reproductive body of a seed plant
  • the consequence of some effort or action; "he lived long enough to see the fruit of his policies"
  • cause to bear fruit
  • yield: an amount of a product
  • bear fruit; "the trees fruited early this year"
  • In botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. In cuisine, when discussing fruit as food, the term usually refers to just those plant fruits that are sweet and fleshy, examples of which would include plum, apple and orange. However, a great many common vegetables, as well as nuts and grains, are the fruit of the plants they come from. ...
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit

Fruit links:
The Open Door Web Site : Biology : Fruits and Seeds
FLOWERS AND FRUITS - BIOLOGY 2402 IMAGE DATABASE
fruits - definition from Biology-Online.org
Integrative and Comparative Biology: Fruits, Fingers, and
Fruit Pathology - Tree Fruit Disease Fact Sheets and Photographs
Fruit Development
How to Get Rid of Fruit Flies - Getting Rid of Fruit Flies, Fruit

FLOWERS AND FRUITS - BIOLOGY 2402 IMAGE DATABASE

FUNGI (Mildews, mushrooms, fungus, etc.

Definitions of Fungi:

  • saprophytic and parasitic organisms that lack chlorophyll and include molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms and yeast; singular, fungus.
    www.hcs.ohio-state.edu/mg/manual/glossary.htm
  • Mushrooms.
    www.recipestogo.com/glossary/glossaryF.html
  • (sing. Fungus)-A class of cellular plants, of which Mushrooms, Toadstools, and Moulds, are familiar examples. 77
    www.bartleby.com/11/104.html
  • A group of organisms that lack chlorophyll and obtain nutrients from dead or living organic matter
    www.people.virginia.edu/~sos-iwla/Stream-Study/StreamStudyHomePage/Glossary.HTML
  • Aerobic, multicellular, nonphotosynthetic, heterotrophic microorganisms. The fungi include mushrooms, yeast, molds, and smuts. Most fungi are saprophytes, obtaining their nourishment from dead organic matter. Along with bacteria, fungi are the principal organisms responsible for the decomposition of carbon in the biosphere. Fungi have two ecological advantages over bacteria: (1) they can grow in low moisture areas, and (2) they can grow in low pH environments. ...
    www.nsc.org/ehc/glossary.htm
  • Molds, mildews, yeasts, mushrooms, and puffballs, a group of organisms lacking in chlorophyll (ie, are not photosynthetic) and which are usually non-mobile, filamentous, and multicellular. Some grow in soil, others attach themselves to decaying trees and other plants whence they obtain nutrients. Some are pathogens, others stabilize sewage and digest composted waste.
    www.stpetebeach.org/glossary/f.asp
  • Simple plants, often microscopic, that lack photosynthetic pigment.
    www.weblife.org/humanure/glossary.html

Peziza arvernensis http://www.mushroomexpert.com/peziza_arvernensis.html

Coprinus comatus http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/species/Coprinus_comatus.html

Introduction to the Fungi
Mushroom Expert

MykoWeb: Mushrooms, Fungi, Mycology
Natural Perspective: Fungus Kingdom
You will be automatically forwarded to the New Home for Fun Facts 
Tom Volk's Fungi-- including mushrooms, mycology, mushroom, molds 
Fungi
Dr. Fungus: Fungi, Fungus, Fungal
Fungi Images on the Net Velcome
Fungi Images on the Net Velcome
Forest Fungi of New Zealand
Environmental & Occupational Disease Epidemiology : NYC DOHMH
Photo Fungi Foray Group
FUNGIPHOTO.COM
Mycology Resources
Zoosporic Fungi Online Home Page
Fungi
Fungi
Fun Facts About Fungi Home

Ascocarp, Ascomycotina.
Ascomycotina, Peziza ascocarp.

Basidiocarp, Basidiomycotina.
Biology Fungi Biology homework help. .
Chapter 23: Fungi  Biology: The Dynamics of Life 1998  Glencoe .
Coprinus gills, Basidiomycotina.
Cornell Center for Fungal
Crustose lichen, Ascomycotina.
Deuteromycotina, Penicillium.
Dr. Fungus: Fungi, Fungus, Fungal
Fruticose lichen, Ascomycotina.
FUNGI  BIOLOGY 2402 IMAGE DATABASE.
Fungi Images on the Net Velcome.
Fungi Perfectia: gourmet and medicinal mushrooms.
Introduction to the Fungi.
MykoWeb: Mushrooms, Fungi, Mycology.

Natural Perspective: Fungus Kingdom.
New Home for Fun Facts .
Orchid root with endomycorrhizae.
The Fungi of California.
The Fungi: Biology 4223.
The Kingdom Fungi.
Tom Volk's Fungi including mushrooms, mycology, molds, indoor 
.
Yahoo! Directory Biology > Mycology.
Zygomycotina, Rhizopus.  

Welcome to Fungal Biology
Yahooligans! - Science and Nature:Living Things:Biology:Fungi
The Kingdom Fungi
Biology Fungi Biology Homework Help
The Open Door Web Site : Biology : Fungi Kingdom
Medmicro Chapter 73
. FUNGAL BIOLOGY A Textbook by JIM DEACON Blackwell Publishing 2005
BIOLOGY I HOME PAGE
Soil Biology

Introduction to the Fungi
Fungi
Fungi Perfectia: gourmet and medicinal mushrooms
Natural Perspective: Fungus Kingdom
MykoWeb: Mushrooms, Fungi, Mycology
The Fungi of California
You will be automatically forwarded to the New Home for Fun Facts 
Fungi Images on the Net Velcome
Tom Volk's Fungi-- including mushrooms, mycology, molds, indoor
Dr. Fungus: Fungi, Fungus, Fungal

Protista (Algae)

Euglenophyta Euglena
Chrysophyta Diatoms
Chlorophyta Volvox (Colonial)
Chlorophyta Oedogonium (Filamentous)
Chlorophyta Spirogyra (Filamentous)

Liverworts

Liverworts
LIVERWORTS
Mosses and Liverworts in Wales
Mosses and Liverworts in Wales: Liverworts
Bryophyta
Hepatic Orders
Mosses and liverworts, simple plants?
Natural Perspective: Mosses (Phylum Bryophyta) and Allies
Mosses and Liverworts
BRYOPHYTES

Non-vascular plants (Mosses, Liverworts)

Moss protonemata
Moss gametophytes and sporophytes
Moss capsule
Moss antheridia
Moss archegonia
Marchantia thallus
Marchantia archegonia
Marchantia antheridia

Cells

Simple / Complex Tissues

Mitosis

Mitosis:  (Science: cell biology) A method of indirect division of a cell, consisting of a complex of various processes, by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of chromosomes characteristic of the somatic cells of the species. mitosis, the process by which the body grows and replaces cells, is divided into four phases.

Mitosis: An Interactive Animation
Mitosis I

The Cell Cycle & Mitosis Tutorial I
The Cell Cycle & Mitosis Tutorial II
Mitosis II
Mitosis
Mitosis World
Molecular Expressions Photo Gallery: Mitosis
Mitosis Stages
Mitosis III
Cell Cycle Game (CDK's and cyclins)
Nobel Prize 2001
Mitosis/Meiosis by Jim Wanamaker of Lew-Port
Cellular Fission by Frans Hochstenbach
Meiosis Sumanas Inc.
Cell Cycle Tutorial from "Cells Alive!"
Cell Death Kuby Immunology
Stem Cell Research Dolan DNA Learning Center
Mitosis and Meiosis - Interactive Exercise by Leif Saul
Mitosis vs Meiosis from PBS
Mitosis/Meiosis Simulation by Jon C. Glase at Cornell
Mitosis and Meiosis Bill By - The Science Guy
How Cancer Grows from PBS
Cell Cycle and Cyclins + Other Cellular Activities BioCreations
ATR's Function in the Cell Cycle of Normal Cells and Cancer
Three-Dimensional packing of Nuclear Chromosomes NCBI
DnA Coiling to form Chromosomes

Monera - Moneran

Protista

(See our Microspcopy page for more protist information.)

Fungi

Introduction to the Fungi
Fungi
Fungi Perfectia: gourmet and medicinal mushrooms
Natural Perspective: Fungus Kingdom
MykoWeb: Mushrooms, Fungi, Mycology
The Fungi of California
You will be automatically forwarded to the New Home for Fun Facts 
Fungi Images on the Net Velcome
Tom Volk's Fungi-- including mushrooms, mycology, molds, indoor
Dr. Fungus: Fungi, Fungus, Fungal

Bryophytes

 

BRYOPHYTES
Bryophytes - introduction
BRYOPHYTES
Bryophytes: Mosses
Wisconsin Bryophytes
Bryophytes I
Bryophytes II
The New York Botanical Garden: American Bryophyte Catalog
Pictures of Bryophytes
RBGE: Bryology at RBGE

Marchantia Sporophyte

Nikon MicroscopyU: Confocal Image Gallery - Marchantia Sporophyte

sporophyte

Biology2pg1

[PDF] PowerPoint Presentation

Liverwort Bryophyte Lab

Microslides Naugra scientific, Human Anatomical Models - Prepared

BSA Plant Images Online - Marchantia archegoniophore w/sporophyte

Bryophyta, Laboratory Notes for BIO 1003 and 3001

[PDF] Laboratory 4: PHYLA HEPATOPHYTAAND ANTHOCEROTOPHYTA HYLUM EPATOPHYTA

Ferns (Pterophyta)

The Pterophyta (ferns) are the second largest division
of the plant kingdom with different 20,000 species.

Gymnosperms

 

GYMNOSPERMS
Erik's own Cyberspace home
Gymnosperms - Introduction
North American Gymnosperms Catalog - NYBG
Gymnosperms
Gymnosperms 304
Psilophuyta
FIELD SYSTEMATIC BOTANY - GYMNSOPERMS - HUGH WILSON
MBG:Research
BSCI 124 Lecture Notes -- Gymnosperms

Angiosperms

ANGIOSPERMS - BIOLOGY 2402 IMAGE DATABASE
Biology 2402 Lecture Notes - Angiosperms
Biology - Diversity - AngiospermsIntroductory Biology Courseware- Glossary
Angiosperms
BIO 5 GENERAL BIOLOGY
Yahooligans! - Science and Nature:Living Things:Biology:Botany
Angiosperms
PinkMonkey.com Biology Study Guide - 15.3 Angiosperms
PinkMonkey.com Biology Study Guide - 15.4 Angiosperms 

 

Biology Laboratory

BIOLOGICAL DATA FITTING

[PDF] Fitting Models to Biological Data using Linear and Nonlinear
The complete guide to nonlinear regression.
The difference between linear and nonlinear regression
[PDF] Fitting Models to Biological Data using Linear and Nonlinear
GraphPad Library: Fitting Models to Biological Data using Linear
[PDF] Learning Bayesian networks from microarray data using multivariate
[PDF] Nonlinear regression analysis of data using a spreadsheet
articles_quantification using elisas
Springer - Statistical Tools for Nonlinear Regression - by Sylvie
UWinnipeg < Dept of Math/Stats >
STATISTICA Advanced Models
Applied Biological Statistics (BIOL 303) home
Fitting Models to Biological Data Using Linear and Nonlinear .
- Biomathematics Courses
[PDF] Practical Remarks in Analyzing Kidney Transplant Data Using a
What procedures are included in SAS/STAT ?
Springer - Analyzing Medical Data Using S-PLUS - by Brian Everitt .
Graduate Course Descriptions - MSU Computer Science Department

biological graphing

[PPT] Biological Language Modeling Toolkit Graphing Utilities
WebED
[PDF] 1 Unit 4: Applying Biological Data to Graphing Calculator
Using the Graphing Calculator - Table of Contents
CABS.html
GRAPHING TB
Experimental Design, Data Analysis, and Graphing
Graphing hints Gooch UMM
esearch School of Biological Sciences
Douglas B Aichele's Home-Page
GraphPad Prism 4: Scientific graphing, curve fitting and
GraphPad Prism 4: Scientific graphing, curve fitting and
Fall 2003 Mathematics for Biological Sciences

Graphic software, graphic program, graphing software, graphing .
AditSite the Biological and Wildlife recording package of choice
Biosinica--Biosite Resources


TUTORIALS ONLINE

Health, Biology, Chemistry

Anthropolgy Tutorial
Asthma Tutorial
Atrial Fibrillation Tutorial
Basics of MRI - Online Book
Biology Interactive Animations and Movies
Biology Project- Tutorials, Problems, Activities
Blood Coagulation Tutorial
Brain Model Tutorial
Cell Biology Course
Cell Cycle and Mitosis Tutorial
Chemistry Tutorials
Chemistry Tutorials and Drills
Cranial Nerves Tutorial
Dental Carries Tutorial
DNA Structure - Animated Tutorial
DNA Structure Tutorial
EKG Tutorial
HIV Tutorial
Interactive Health Tutorials - Medline
Introduction to Cochlear Implants
Learn CPR
Molecular Biology Tutorials
Neuroscience Tutorial - Washington School of Medicine
Nursing Resources Tutorial
Organic Chemistry Tutorial
Organic Chemistry Tutorials
Pathology Tutorials
Pharmacology Math Tutorial
The Heart - On Online Exploration
Use of Human Subjects in Research Tutorial

Agriculture, Earth and Environment

Cat Anatomy Tutorial
Classification of Living Things Tutorial
Zoonotic Diseases Tutorials
Here Comes the Sun - Solar Terrestrial Tutorial
How to Become a Gardener
Inscect Biology and Ecology
Landscape Irrigation Tutorials
Soil Info Tutorials
Dissection of Sheep's Brain Tutorial
Amphibian Embryology Tutorial
Earth Science On-Line Tutorials

Research, Communication and Literacy Tutorials

Argumentative Essay Tutorial
Net Tutor - Learn the Net
Learn the Net.com
Internet for Beginners
How to do Research on the Internet
Copyright Tutorial
Information Competence Tutorial
Library Research Guide
Literature and Writing Tutorials
Literature Tutorials- 20th Century
Research and Dissertation Tutorials
TILT - Texas Literacy Tutorial
Identifying the Argument of the Essay Tutorial
Finding Images on the Web Tutorial
Information Ethics Tutorial
Information Literacy Tutorial
Library Learning Tutorial
Manuscripts and Archives Tutorial
The Writing Process Online Tutorial
Information Literacy Tutorial
Information Literacy Tutorial - Healey Library
Argumentation and Critical Thinking Tutorial
Evaluation Internet Sites Tutorial
Research Skills Tutorial - UMC Edul
Information Literacy and You - Penn State Libraries
Using the Internet for Researching Tutorial
Resume Online Workshop
Resume Formats Tutorial
Research Tutorial- Claire Library
Searching the WWW Tutorial
Boolean Search Interactive Tutorial

FREE INFORMATION http://www.mantex.co.uk/ou/t171/t171-00.htm


TILIA STEM

Botany Glossary "P"
Botany Glossary "V"
Tilia Stem CS
BOT201SecGrowLab
Secondary Growth
PhotoMicrograph Gallery
Nikon MicroscopyU: Phase Contrast and DIC Comparison Image Gallery ...
Plant Anatomy- Image List

Olympus MIC-D: Brightfield Gallery - Basswood (Tilia) Stem
BSA Plant Images Online - Tilia stem, phloem, 3 yr
BSA Plant Images Online - Tilia stem, phloem, 3 yr
Tilia Stem XS
Nikon MicroscopyU: Confocal Image Gallery - Basswood (Tilia) Stem
PhotoMicrograph Gallery
Tilia stem TS (HP 10 x 40)
Tillia Stem Information
Botany Glossary "V"
Botany Glossary "P"
Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You - Intel Play QX3
Stems
Magnoliophyta-2
L12 - F 14 Feb - Announcements
Tilia stem
Stems
Spring 2000, Biological Sciences 1C Lab Images

Lab Help for Ex. 6 Green Plant - II
Magnoliophyta-2
BOT201SecGrowLab
Stem & Root Anatomy
Nikon MicroscopyU: Phase Contrast and DIC Comparison Image Gallery 
Labs of Bio 331
Organisms et alia in the e-lab
Biology 103 Slides
Woody Stems Lab
Tilia stem TS (HP 10 x 10)
Plant Tissues
========== Plant Anatomy and Morphology ==========
BOT 202 Course Reference Materials
Secondary growth and wood
woodsmic.htm
Concepts in Biology II - Lab Images - - Bloomsburg University of 
Biology Image Database: Botany Photomicrographs
planttiss&root
Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Specialized Microscopy

Hydrophyte

hydrophyte
Dictionary of Difficult Words - hydrophyte
Definition of hydrophyte - WordReference.com Dictionary
Hydrophyte - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hydrophyte - definition from Biology-Online.org
hydrophyte - definition of hydrophyte by the Free Online
hydrophyte. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English 
BSA Plant Images Online - Nymphaea, leaf, hydrophyte
Garden Terms: Definition of hydrophyte
Hydrophyte House
hydrophyte, hydrophytes- WordWeb dictionary definition
Hydrophyte
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hydrophyte

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Biology - Cephalopods Video and Thousands of Images

Video Gallary http://www.cephbase.utmb.edu/viddb/vidsrch2.cfm


Biology : Basic Facts (Collins Gem Basic Facts)
by T. A. McCahill (Paperback - September 1999)
 
 

The Lives of a Cell : Notes of a Biology Watcher
by Lewis Thomas

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ASTROBIOLOGY - MICRO*SCOPE Site
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The Book - A highly recommended freshwater protozoa guide!
 

Free-Living Freshwater Protozoa: A Color Guide
by David J. Patterson, S. Hedley (Illustrator)

Book Description
This color book makes the identification of individual protozoa easily accessible and provides information on protozoan communities found in different environments by means of a wealth of color photomicrographs supported by original and detailed line drawings and concise text.
  Contains excellent information for ecologists as well.
Thanks to David Patterson for submitting information in this section.


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