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TRANSISTOR PAGE INDEX
   Select a transistor topic from the list below.

Amplifiers Electronics Semiconductors
An Introduction to Transistors Fabrication Semi Technology
Applications of Semiconductors Field Effect - MOSFET Simulator  
Basics History SMD Markings I
Batteries How To Identify  SMD Markings II
Biasing **Introduction** Start here Smith Charts

Books

LINKS      LED's 

S-Parameters
Calculations

Manufacturers

Special Devices
Circuits Miscellaneous Standards  
Configurations NEWS! Substituting
Cross Reference NTE

Testing

Data Sheets

Old Transistor Radios

Transistor Links

Design

Pin-Outs

Tutorials

Devices Power Supplies

Typical Circuit

Diodes / LED's Projects to Build UJT
ECG & SK RF Design VIDEO! IC's

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The Transistor Story -

"The transistor was probably the most important invention of the 20th Century, and the story behind the invention is one of clashing egos and top secret research." 

The First Point ContactTransistor

Go To:  http://www.101science.com  -  Your internet science directory and learning center.

This picture shows the workbench of John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at Bell Laboratories. They were supposed to be doing fundamental research about crystal surfaces. The experimental results hadn't been very good, though, and there's a rumor that their boss, William Shockley, came near to canceling the project.  But in 1947, working alone, they switched to using tremendously pure materials.  It dawned on them that they could build the circuit in the picture. It was a working amplifier!  John and Walter submitted a patent for the first working point contact transistor.  Shockley was furious and took their work and invented the junction transistor and submitted a patent for it 9 days later. The three shared a Nobel Prize. Bardeen and Brattain continued in research (and Bardeen later won another Nobel). Shockley quit to start a semiconductor company in Palo Alto. It folded, but its staff went on to invent the integrated circuit (the "chip") and to found Intel Corporation. By 1960, all important computers used transistors for logic, and ferrite cores for memory. Memory chips replaced core in the 1970's.


    Emitter Base Collector  - Transistor
1. INTRODUCTION  - A transistor is a small electronic device that can cause changes in a large electrical output signal by small changes in a small input signal.  That is, a weak input signal can be amplified (made stronger) by a transistor.  For example, very weak radio signals in the air can be picked up by a wire antenna and processed by transistor amplifiers until they are strong enough to be heard by the human ear.  A transistor consists of three layers of silicon or germanium semiconductor material.  Impurities are added to each layer to create a specific electrical positive or negative charged behavior.   "P" is for a positive charged layer and "N" is for a negative charged layer.  Transistors are either NPN or PNP in the configuration of the layers.  There is no particular difference here except the polarity of voltages that need to be applied to make the transistor operate. The weak input signal is applied to the center layer called the base and usually referenced to ground which is also connected to the bottom layer called the emitter.  The larger output signal is take from the collector also referenced to ground and the emitter.  Additional resistors and capacitors are required along with at least one DC power source to complete the transistor amplifier.  You should have already studied the basic electricity and basic electronics sections of this web site and have a fairly good understanding of how resistors and capacitors effect electrical circuits.   A typical transistor amplifier is shown below.

Introduction to the transistor:

A silicon bipolar transistor - BASICS - watch the video.

Detailed transistor links
http://www.williamson-labs.com

Introduction Animations Differential Amplifier
Fundamentals Common Base Stage  CMRR  Common Mode Rejection Ratio
Gain =  Hfe = Beta  Common Collector Stage  Gain Bandwidth Product
D.C. Coupled  Darlington Pair Miller Effect
A.C. Coupled Emitter Follower Bypassing Supply Rail   (LINK)
V to I Converter  Voltage Regulator High Frequency Compensation
I to V Converter A.C. Feedback  Input Impedance 
Bias D.C. Feedback Output Impedance
Clipping & Cutoff Thermal Feedback   
Common Emitter Stage  Video Amplifier  

 

How a bipolar switching transistor works. Watch the video. Part 1

Transistor video - Part 2

How Transistors"Really" Work http://amasci.com/amateur/transis.html

START HERE: Introduction to the Transistor: http://www.4p8.com/eric.brasseur/vtranen.html

Excellent Introduction to Transistors http://www.kilowattclassroom.com/Archive/Transistor.pdf

Transistor Circuits: Explained!  http://www.electronicsexplained.co.uk/transistor_circuits.htm

EngPlanet:  Semiconductor Fundamentals - http://www.engplanet.com/redirect.html?2436

EngPlanet:  The p-n Junction  -  http://www.engplanet.com/redirect.html?2437

EngPlanet:  The Bipolar Transistor - http://www.engplanet.com/redirect.html?2435

Transistor Radio Directory       (Aldo Andreani) http://sites.google.com/site/aldoandr/
(Wonderful resource for information on the transistor.)

Links from: http://courses.ncsu.edu:8020/ece480/common/htdocs/

Useful transistor links:


Basics

Crystal Structure
Physical Properties
Semiconductor Physics
Physical Properties in detail
Electrical Properties of Semiconductors
The p-n Junction
The MOS structure
Metal-Semiconductor Junctions
Java Applets Illustrations
More Semiconductor Applets

Transistor Tutorials

List of Semiconductor Tutorials http://www.americanmicrosemi.com/information/tutorial/


2.  TYPICAL TRANSISTOR CIRCUIT -  This is a silicon transistor circuit showing typical voltage values.   When the forward base/emitter voltage is 0.6 to 0.7 V, the transistor is silicon.   Germanium transistors will have a forward base/emitter bias voltage of 0.2 to 0.3 V   This is a silicon transistor because 2.6 base volts minus 1.9 emitter volts equal a forward bias of 0.7 volts indicating a silicon transistor.

A transistor circuit diagram sample.

At this point you should have more questions and want to learn more about how transistor circuits work, how to design your own transistor circuits and build electronic equipment.  Therefore; the next step would be to study the material in the following links.  From this study you will be on your way to learning more about transistor amplifier bias arrangements, the importance of impedance matching, transistor specifications, and transistor parameters.

Typical RF transistor circuits http://www.tpub.com/neets/book8/31g.htm

Circuit Design Basics: http://analyzethat.net/electrical_engineering.php

RF coupling circuits http://www.tpub.com/neets/book8/31f.htm

Schematics  http://www.mitedu.freeserve.co.uk/Circuits/cctindex.html

How to read schematics http://www.angelfire.com/ab2/BEAM/info/help.html

Transistor Circuits - http://users.pandora.be/educypedia/electronics/circuits.htm

                                    - http://www.discovercircuits.com/T/transistor.htm

Examples from http://users.ece.gatech.edu/~mleach/ece3050/

TRANSISTOR CIRCUITS

Transistor Circuits
Multiple Transistor Circuits
Discover Circuits - Transistor Circuits
Transistor Circuits
Transistor Circuits
4QD-ORG file redirect
Example Transistor Circuits
The educational encyclopedia, electronic course material
BJT Transistor Circuits
Transistor Circuits
Vintage Radio Repair and Restoration - Transistor Circuits and
Transistors
Electronics Explained
photo transistor circuit on GlobalSpec
[PDF] Two transistor circuit replaces IC
The basic transistor amplifier
Transistor Schematics   http://www.sfe-dcs.com/NewStuff/NewFiles.html

- Two transistor amplifier circuit with feedback
- Transistor active high pass filter
- Transistor current limiter for power supplies

TranConf
 68Kb
 Transistor Configurations and how to identify them
TranConf_c
 92Kb
 Some color added to TranConf
TranCkts
 95Kb
 Can you properly identify these Transistor Circuits and Functions?
TranProb
 42Kb
 Solve in detail this Transistor Circuit Problem.
Tran2Stge
 74Kb
 Solve this 2-Stage Transistor Circuit Problem

Vintage Transistor Radio Circuit Diagrams - Schematics - Servicing
Layout Design: Basic Transistor Level Schematics
Transistor
Tutorial for LEDs and Transistors
[PDF] Computer-Based Project in VLSI Design Co 3/8
Schematics Help
Discover Circuits - Amplifier Circuits - Audio Schematics
Press Release - Concept Engineering Adds Transistor-Level 
T-engine - Transistor-Level Schematic Generator
Furby Schematics

DEVICES

Diodes
Different types of Diodes
The Bipolar Transistor
The MOSFET
The JFET
The IGBT
Thyristors
Java Applet: The Diode
Java Applet: The BJT
Java Applet: The MOSFET

FABRICATION

 

[PDF] PNP Transistor Fabrication
Molecular Expressions: Electricity and Magnetism - Interactive 
[PDF] Bi-Polar Si-Ge
The Chip Collection - TI Transistor Fabrication Display
Inventing New Products/Inventions: "Fabrication of transistors
Proximity effect of electron beam lithography for single-electron 
Engineering, Inovation, and Design
Technology Challenges for 100nm and Beyond Transistor and 
nMOSFET Fabrication
transistor fabrication - Google Search
[DOC] Ga2O3 Nanowire: FET Fabrication and Electrical Transport Studies
TSMC Qualifies Applied Materials' Gate Stack System for Its
The Chip Collection - Texas Instruments' Pictures ONLY
[PDF] High breakdown voltage AlGaN-GaNHEMTs achieved by multiple field
NRL - Fabrication of a Fast Turn-Off Transistor by Wafer Bonding
Presentations
FET3
Apple - PowerPC G5 - IBM Fabrication Process
Styrenic polymers as gate dielectrics for pentacene field-effect
Recognized HTML document
The Manufacturing Process
Crystal growth

Oxidation of Silicon
Photolithography
Doping Process
Thin Film Deposition
Fabrication of a P-N Junction
Fabrication of MOS Devices
Java Applet to building an FET
Java Applet to buiding an FET and a BJT
Java Applet to building a CMOS transistor pair

TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS

Amplifiers
Linear Amplifier Basics in detail

[PDF] Transistor Amplifiers
Audio Amplifiers
The Transistor Amplifier - Page 1
The common-collector amplifier - Chapter 4: BIPOLAR JUNCTION
[PDF] Differential transistor amplifiers
Approach Yields Low-Noise Amplifiers
THE TRANSISTOR AS A VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER
THE BASIC TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER-Cont.
[PDF] Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers
Lab 11 - Transistor Amplifiers
[PDF] Two Stage Transistor Audio Amplifier
Valve Amplifiers
WiMo: VHF Transistor amplifie
BASIC TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER
Valve sound - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
MSN Encarta - Multimedia - Figure 2: NPN Transistor Amplifie
Amplifiers for DC Servomotors - Tutorial - Development Library
Elsevier.com - Radio Frequency Transistors
[PDF] EE 8395 Microwave Transistor Amplifiers Course Information
DECWARE - Article on Tubes vs. Transistors - Part I

TRANSISTOR PROJECTS YOU CAN BUILD

Electronic Transistor Circuits for the Hobbyist
One transistor FM radio project

903 383-7047 STORMWISE Ferrite Rods Long Ferrite Rods VLF Antenna 
Transistors
VK3YE's Australian QRP Home Page: Suggested Projects
300W Audio amplifie
Full Featured Transistor Tester - ESP Projects Page
Tutorial for LEDs and Transistors
Electronics and Electricity Kits
ePanoramas
All Games and Toys.Com - Educational Activities
9 projects with 1 transistor Everyday I receive one or two E-mail
Robot Project FAQ
How to Build a Digital Clock
Educational and fun electronic kits
Transistor Museum Construction Projects Point Contact Germanium
BUILD YOUR OWN BFO METAL DETECTOR
How To Choose The Right Motor
Talking Electronics PIC Theory 5x7 DISPLAY Data Sheets for the

Oatbox Crystal Set Project
[PDF] PageMaker 4.0 - GUIDE.PM4
HandsOnEE Syllabus: 9-20-03
square wave test signal generator
AMZ Projects
Laurier's Handy Dandy Little Circuits: Supply Project.html
Logging Frequency Counter
[PDF] EE321 Project 2: Transistor Simulation
Stereo VU Meter

5-Projects Page 18
Elmer 001 - The Pixie 2 Project (Parts List and Additional Parts
Altair's N4YWK Microwave Radio Projects
LIGHTS OUT CIRCUITRY
[PDF] PageMaker 4.0 - RS.PM4
28-161 '30-in-ONE' Electronic Projects Lab Kit Features
NOGA QRP - Projects

Electronic Circuits for the Hobbyist, by VA3AVR


Testing Transistors
  1. In-circuit testing - http://www.geofex.com/fxdebug/trantest.htm
  2. Precautions - http://www.tpub.com/neets/book7/25h.htm
  3. Semiconductor Testing & Curve Tracers     http://www.repairfaq.org/sam/semitest.htm
  4. Testing diodes and transistors - http://www.elexp.com/t_test.htm
  5. Testing transistors 1 - http://wollongong.apana.org.au/~ben/info/testing.html
  6. Test with a VOM- http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electronic/trantest.html
  7. Testing with DMM or VOM - http://www.anatekcorp.com/qdmmvom.htm
  8. Troubleshooting - http://www.reprise.com/host/tektronix/workbench/default.asp
  9. Troubleshooting tips - Tektronix - http://www.reprise.com/host/tektronix/workbench/transistor.asp
  10. Transistor Tester you can build - http://sound.westhost.com/project31.htm
Transistor Circuit Design - How to understand or design circuits with transistors

Circuit Design Basics: http://analyzethat.net/electrical_engineering.php

  - How to understand or design circuits with transistors.

  1. The Transistor Circuit Design - http://www.interq.or.jp/japan/se-inoue/e_dance26.htm
  2. JFET Transistor Circuit Calculations  http://www.ele.auckland.ac.nz/archives/design/tools/ampfet.htm
  3. Darlington Circuits - http://radon.eecs.berkeley.edu/~hodges/DarlingtonCircuit.pdf
  4. All about SPICE  http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/classes/icbook/spice/
  5. Audio Amplifier Design - http://www.angelfire.com/ab3/mjramp/pagefour.html
  6. Basic Circuit descriptions - http://www.phys.ualberta.ca/~gingrich/phys395/notes/node77.html
  7. BJT Bias Circuit Design http://www.mitedu.freeserve.co.uk/Design/bjtbias.htm
  8. Build 1 transistor FM Transmitter - http://www.somerset.net/arm/fm_only_one_transistor_radio.html
  9. CIRCUIT DESIGN - See our new CIRCUIT DESIGN page.
  10. Coupling circuits - http://www.mitedu.freeserve.co.uk/Design/coupling.htm
  11. Design Ideas - http://www.hagtech.com/ideas.html
  12. Design with discrete transistors - http://www.dself.demon.co.uk/discrete.htm
  13. BJT Circuits http://www.ele.auckland.ac.nz/info/techos/design/tools/ampfet.htm
  14. Negative Feedback - http://www.mitedu.freeserve.co.uk/Design/lazarnfb.htm
  15. Serenade 5 - Free software http://www.courtah.net/
  16. Serenade SV - Free software  http://www.ansoft.com/about/academics/sersv/index.htm
  17. Transistor as a Switch - http://www.mitedu.freeserve.co.uk/Design/bjtsw.htm
  18. Transistor Biasing  http://www.amwireless.com/archives/2001/v13n4/v13n4pg30.pdf
  19. Transistor Circuit Design http://www.dself.demon.co.uk/discrete.htm
  20. Transistor Operation   http://www.v-sector.com/~et/theory/transistor_operation.php
  21. SPICE transistor citcuit Input Files  http://www.macs.ee.mcgill.ca/~roberts/SPICE/SPICE_Decks/spicedecks_ed1_index.html
  22. SPICE Simulation of Transistors  http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~jan/spice/spice.transistor.html
  23. Transistor h and Y Prameters http://www.gensemi.com/appnotespdf/SmSigAppnote3.pdf
  24. Semiconductor Java Applets - GREAT SITE!!  http://jas2.eng.buffalo.edu/applets/
  25. Various Electronic Calculators for Electronics http://www.qsl.net/yo5ofh/data_sheets/amateur radio computer.htm
  26. Beige Bag Simulation Software   http://www.beigebag.com/
  27. eSketch Electronic Simulations Software  http://www.schematica.com/
 

AppCAD Ver 3.0.2    now available !
[PDF] Darlington~s Contributions To Transistor Circuit Design - Circuits
NTSC Television Tutorials
Discover Circuits - Transistor Circuits
[PDF] Microwave Transistor Circuit Design
The circuit design for the current feedback bias type transistor 
Example Transistor Circuits
Solid State Circuits Tutorial, Notes, Downloads@OneSmartClick.Com
[PDF] ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT DESIGN 3

TRANSISTOR S - PARAMETERS

[PDF] Working with transistor S-parameters
[PDF] S-Parameter Basics for Modeling Engineers Describing Twoport 
MM S-parameter Module
[PDF] Agilent AN 154 S-Parameter Design
Applying S-Parameters To Amplifier Design
[PDF] ECE 202A Lab Assignment #1: Bipolar feedback amplifier design. Due
[PDF] Interconnect Modelling of Coplanar HBT Transistor Arrays
Files

Approach Increases Amplifier Gain
[PDF] CHOOSING A REPLACEMENT TRANSISTOR
[PDF] ADiT with S-parameter modeling as high-frequency design solution
Infineon Technologies AG - Products-~SIEGET45 RF-Bipolar NPN
[PDF] New LDMOS Model Delivers Powerful Transistor Library— Part 1
Small Signal FET/HEMT Modelling-CAMFET
[PDF] Nonlinear Modelling of an Almost Constant Transconductance MESFET
[PDF] A novel interpretation of transistor -parameters by poles and 

[PDF] ECE202A Problem Set #2: Device Modelling and Simple Broadband
[PDF] Improvements on a MOSFET Model for Non-Linear RF Simulations
[PDF] Limitations of Double Polysilicon Self-Aligned Bipolar Transistor
Fully Integrated CMOS Radios from RF to Millimeter Wave
RFAssistant program description
[PDF] Contents
Advanced Transistor Modeling
[PDF] A General Approach for S-parameter Design of Balanced Oscillator
MATLAB Central File Exchange - Using S-Parameters in MATLAB &
Reflections on Transistor Stability

[PDF] Exploring RF
Silvaco - Products - S-Pisces
[PDF] A low-cost, two-stage, low noise amplifier for 5 GHz to 6 GHz ...
[PDF] Amplifiers
Dr. Duangrat Eungdamrong
[PDF] EE 458/558 Microwave Circuit Design and Measurements Lab AMPLIFIER
[PDF] Pg 075-082.rev3
[PDF] High-Frequency Transistor Primer Part II
[PDF] A Practical Method of Parameter Extraction for the VBIC Model
[PDF] DESIGN OF CLASS-E RADIO FREQUENCY POWER AMPLIFIER by Saad Al 
BFG540; BFG540/X; BFG540/XR; NPN 9GHz wideband transistor
High frequency circuit engineering - The IEE
[PDF] Oscillator Designer – CAD of Microwave Oscillators
[PDF] S-Pisces/Device3D
[PDF] AN423: Field Effect Transistor RF Amplifier Design Techniques
[PDF] New LDMOS Model Delivers Powerful Transistor Library— Part 2
EECS 397 Home Page
Test & Measurement World - What are S-parameters, anyway? - 2/1 
[PDF] Microsoft PowerPoint - PAConference2004_Oct8_update
[PDF] Design of circuits using bipolar devices
[PDF] DATA-BASED LOAD PULL SIMULATION FOR LARGE- SIGNAL TRANSISTOR MODEL
EmicNew
[PDF] ECEN5104, Fall 2003 – CAD of Microwave Circuits Zoya Popovic and 
[PDF] Chapter 3 Gain Considerations
[PDF] POWER AMPLIFIER DESIGN Contents
[PPT] Presentation Guide
[PDF] MILLIMETER-WAVE CMOS DEVICE MODELING AND SIMULATION Chinh H. Doan 
Abstract

SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY

COMPLETE SEMICONDUCTOR INFRMATION http://ece-www.colorado.edu/~bart/book/title.htm

Welcome to Semiconductor Technology
Welcome to Semiconductor Technology, Inc
Introduction to Semiconductor Technology
Welcome to MOSCHI
SemiTech
www.ieee.org/journal/tcad
Welcome
Britney Spears guide to Semiconductor Physics: semiconductor
TI Semiconductors: Analog DSP Digital Signal Processing Power

NEW! FREE!! -  Engineering Books Online

PCB Board Creation - Design Software!

Eagle PCB Design Software http://www.cadsoft.de/info.htm
Eagle Lite Freeware http://www.cadsoft.de/freeware.htm
Eagle Download http://www.cadsoft.de/cgi-bin/download.pl?page=/home/cadsoft/html_public/download.htm.en&dir=pub/program/4.1 http://www.cadsoft.de/cgi-bin/download.pl?page=/home/cadsoft/html_public/download.htm.en&dir=pub/program/4.1
Eagle Getting Started Tutorial  http://fab.media.mit.edu/topics/electronics/pcb/

An Eagle Board Example:                           An Eagle Schematic Example:

PCB Example                    Schematic Sample Transistor and semiconductor books for your bookshelf.#1    Transistor and semiconductor books for your bookshelf. #1 cover Malvino Electronic Principles Instructor's Manual for Malvino...  Experiments for Electronic Principles... 

5 out of 5 stars Excellent/Easy to Comprehend/Succinct, April 2, 2000

Reviewer: Bonnie Pereida from USA
  I feel this (Malvino's Electronic Principles) is the best book on Electronics I have ever read. It is easy to understand, comes right to the point and makes you feel so at ease with the subject.

I think the book is outstanding because it explains transistors better than any other book I have ever read. Rather than a heavy use of formulas, Malvino relies on concrete explanations of the physical mechanism behind transistor action. On this foundation he then goes on to explain op amps, active filters, and many other advanced topics in the absolute clearest possible way.

RFtransistor Shop at Amazon.com Radio Frequency Transistor


TRANSISTOR CALCULATIONS

JFET Transistor Circuit Calculations  http://www.ele.auckland.ac.nz/archives/design/tools/ampfet.htm

Transistor Example
[FLASH] Basic Transistor Calculations Basic Transistor Calculations Reset 
Electrical Engineering :: Electronics :: Bipolar Junction
ESP - Heatsink design and transistor mounting
Transistor Circuits
Electronics I Experiment 9 Transistor Biasing
Transistor configurations
[PDF] Lab 2 Bipolar Transistors
Designing Bipolar Transistor Audio PreAmplifiers
he Transistor as a Switch

The educational encyclopedia, online calculators about
[PDF] Bipolar Junction Transistors
[PDF] Lab 2 Bipolar Transistors
ELE 343 Electronics II<br>Improved 2N3904 SPICE Model </titl>
[PDF] Physics 225 Lab: Transistors
[PDF] Transistor Curve Tracer
[PDF] Physics 76 Spring 1998 Basic Electronics Purpose
[PDF] Bilkent University Experiment 4 Simple BJT Amplifier
[PDF] 6.301 Solid State Circuits
Resistor-Transistor Logic
Electrical Engineering :: Electronics :: Bipolar Junction
Electronics I Experiment 9 Transistor Biasing
[PDF] University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical Engineering EE
Universal Technical Systems
Transistor
.: UCLA Electrical Engineering Department :.
Engineering Works! Texas A&M Engineering
Bio Medical and Instrumentation Engineering
[PDF] The University of Portland School of Engineering EE352 Electronic
[PDF] UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA College of Engineering Department of 

Calculations and Conversions

MUST HAVE!  TI-83 Plus BETTER!  TI-89 BEST!  Voyage 200
     

How to Identify Transistors - Next, you need to know how to identify transistor from the numbers printed on them.  This is important so you may determine their electrical characteristics and for replacement to effect repairs to equipment.  The information below will help you in understanding what the numbers and letters printed on transistors mean.  JEDEC, JIS, and Pro-Electron are standards committees that  try to establish standards for transistor production.  Transistor manufactures sometimes use their own numbering systems for transistors they develop on their own.  The links at the bottom of the page will help in determining the transistor pin-out connections and electrical parameters and specifications.

Transistor Info
Electronics Tips: Reading Transistor Markings
Transistor and Diode Data
The educational encyclopedia, databank, tables, electronic symbols .
Reading Transistor Markings
Semicondictor markings
TRANSISTORS ARE IDENTIFIED
Transistor specifications

 

Transistors
Lesson plan - Transistors
[PPT] Electronics Section 4.4 Digital Processes
[PDF] Introduction to Transistors
transistor
transistor -> Types of Transistors on Encyclopedia.com 2002
Transistorized! Teachers' Guide Lesson 3
Lab 4 (Transistors)


3.  TRANSISTOR STANDARDS -    

Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (JEDEC).
    (Ref: The EIA/JEDEC web site)

Digit - Letter - Serial number - [suffix]

The transistors first digit is one less than the number of connections the device has, except for 4N and 5N which are reserved for optocouplers. The number 2 is most common.  The letter is always N.  The serial number runs from 100 to 9999 indicating its development date.

The (optional) suffix indicates the gain (hfe) group of the device:
A = low gain
B = medium gain
C = high gain
No suffix = ungrouped (any gain).

Examples- 2N4401, 2N2222A, 2N104.

2SAXXXX PNP type high frequency
2SBXXXX PNP type low frequency
2SCXXXX NPN type high frequency
2SDXXXX NPN type low frequency


-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS).
        (Ref:  The EIA Japan web site.)

Digit - Two letters - Serial number - [suffix]

The digit is one less than the number of connections, i.e. 2 for most.  The letters indicate the application area according to the following code:

SA: PNP HF transistor
SB: PNP AF transistor
SC: NPN HF transistor
SD: NPN AF transistor
SE: Diodes
SF: Thyristors
SG: Gunn devices
SH: UJT
SJ: P-channel FET/MOSFET
SK: N-channel FET/MOSFET
SM: Triac
SQ: LED
SR: Rectifier
SS: Signal diodes
ST: Avalanche diodes 
SV: Varicaps
SZ: Zener diodes

The serial number runs from 10-9999.

Examples- 2SA2222, 2SB719, 2SC583, 2SC435, C 435.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pro-electron.
     (Ref: The Pro-Electron web site.)

Two letters, [letter], Serial number, [suffix]

The first letter indicates the material:
A = Ge
B = Si
C = GaAs
R = compound materials.
(Most common type is B.)

The second letter indicates the device application:
A: Diode RF
B: Variac
C: transistor, AF, small signal
D: transistor, AF, power
E: Tunnel diode
F: transistor, HF, small signal
K: Hall effect device
L: Transistor, HF, power
N: Optocoupler
P: Radiation sensitive device
Q: Radiation producing device
R: Thyristor, Low power
T: Thyristor, Power
U: Transistor, power, switching
Y: Rectifier
Z: Zener, or voltage regulator diode

The third letter, if used, is usually a W,X,Y or Z indicates non-commercial use. The serial number runs from 100-9999. The suffix indicates the gain grouping, as for JEDEC.
Examples- BC204A, BAW45, BF299, BFY62.

 

Transistor Standards
America's Standards Community
[PDF] Introduction to Transistors
IEEE FORMS WORKING GROUP TO DEVELOP STANDARDS FOR ORGANIC AND
Inside Logic Gates
Video Standards at MonitorWorld.com informational interchange for
STMicroelectronics - Discretes - Power Bipolar Transistors
STMicroelectronics - Discretes - Power Bipolar Transistors 
Standard SR-F22 and Standard "Mignon" pocket transistor radios
PlanetAnalog.com - A brief recap of popular logic standards

Philips Semiconductors :  Not sure which communications standards are used in which country? With our global presence and technical expertise across all wireless applications worldwide, we've compiled an up-to-date and extensive array of detailed information in one easy-to-use chart. 

An active participant in Standards Committees, Philips Semiconductors is already building systems for next generation wireless communications standards such as Bluetooth and 3G mobile phones, based on our state-of-the-art RF process technologies and advanced platform-based IC design methodologies. With our global sales and support organization, Philips Semiconductors is your ideal wireless communications partner, no matter where you are in the world.

Supplies are limited, so order your complimentary copy today; you can also Download PDF File download a PDF of the map.

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4.  Manufacturers

http://ee.cleversoul.com/hotsheet.html

Actel
AMD
AdvancedPower
Allegro
Alliance
Altera
AnalogDevices
Apex
Atmel
Benchmarq
Burr-Brown
Catalyst
CentralSemi
Cirrus Logic
CP Clare
CrimsonSemi
CypressSemi
Dallas
Diodes Inc.
Elantec
EpicSemi
Epson
ESS Technology
Exar
Fairchild
Fujitsu
GeneralSemi
Hitachi
Hynix (Hyundai)
ICT
IDT
IMP
Impala Linear
Infineon
Intel
Intl. Rectifier
Intersil
ISD
ISSI
IXYS
Lattice
Linear Systems
LinearTech
LSI Logic
Maxim
Micrel
Microchip
MicroLinear
Micron
Microsemi
Mitsubishi
Mosel Vitelic
Motorola
MX-Com
National
NEC
NexFlash
NJR
NTE
OKI
On Semiconductor
Panasonic
Philips
Power Integrations
Powerex
PowerTech
Ramtron

Samsung
Sanyo
Seiko
Semicoa
SemTech
Sharp
Siliconix
Simtek
Sipex
Sony
STMicro
Supertex
Surge
TDK
Teccor
TelCom
Telefunken
Texas Instruments
Toko
Toshiba
Unitrode
Vishay
Waferscale
Xicor
Xilinx
Zetex
Zilog

Longer list  http://ee.cleversoul.com/hotsheet_ics.html

     (Ref: Motorola web site.)
     (Ref: RCA web site.)
     (Ref: Texas Instruments web site.)

Manufactures use their own type indictors as prefixes grouped as follows.  There are complete lines of replacement transistors such as Philips ECG (Cross Reference Search) , and NTE FREE Online, (or, NTE Downloadable software) with their own unique numbering systems. (Note:  NTE downloaded software requires a registration form to be completed but the software is free.

MJ:     Motorola power, metal case    
MJE:   Motorola power, plastic case
MPS:  Motorola low power, plastic case
MRF:  Motorola HF, VHF and microwave transistor
RCA:  RCA                                            
RCS:  RCS
TIP:    Texas Instruments power transistor (plastic case)
TIPL:  TI planar power transistor   
TIS:    TI small signal transistor (plastic case)


Examples- ZTX202, TIP324, MJE34055, TIS20.

Also see   http://www.eeca.org/eeca.htm  Europe 


5.  TRANSISTOR DATASHEET LINKS: (Including pin-outs)

  1. http://www.qsl.net/yo5ofh/data_sheets/amateur radio computer.htm

  2. http://www.microelectr.com.hk/datasheet-list/Transistor/

PINOUTS

Bill's Hobby Circuit Library
Transistor Pinouts
THE TRANSISTOR
ePanorama
DESIGNERCOUNCIL Archives - July 2001
IC Pinouts
Action Pinball & Amusement - Williams Display Power Transistor 
Common Component Pin-Outs
tonepad -- file information
Spies Wiretap Archives @ MikesArcade.com

Transistor Cross Reference Database
http://www.ee.washington.edu/circuit_archive/parts/cross.html

New Database Listings - very complete for semiconductors
http://www.bgs.nu/sdw/a.html

Transistor Database http://www.qsl.net/yo5ofh/data_sheets/transist.txt

Datasheet Locator  http://www.datasheetlocator.com/

Data Sheets  http://www.qsl.net/yo5ofh/data_sheets/data_sheets_page.htm

You can find more transistor data sheets to download HERE. http://www.microelectr.com.hk/DATASheet/TRANSISTOR
(NOTE:  These are picture .tif files and they may not print out directly.  If that is the case for you paste the URL into a paint image program that can handle TIF files and print them from there.

Transistor Specifications  http://www.sound.au.com/trans.htm

Transistor Cross Reference Database

Transistor Cross Reference Database.
This database
currently has over 40,000 transistors in it ...
Description: Based on Pacific Semiconductor's 40,000 transistors database.

  NTE Transistor Cross Reference:  Click HERE
 NTE Electronics Cross Reference Search
 NTE Cross Reference
NTE Capacitors
NTE Resistor
NTE Price Search
NTE Master Price List
NTE Data Sheet
NTE LED Flashlights

ECG (and SK) Transistor Cross Reference

ECG Cross Reference
ECG Price Search

SK Cross Reference

ECG, SK, and NTE Type Semiconductor Components
AnaLog on ECG, NTE, SK Replacement Semiconductors
Electronics Repair Tips Information & Electronics Cross Reference
MITA Parts Support
Component Cross Reference
Moyer Electronic Supply
ecg sk cross reference - Google Search
Datasheet

MicroE Seach Page
Datasheets Search
Techische gegevens van componenten
Transistor Datasheets
ElectroKits: transistor datasheets - transistor datasheets
ePanorama
Sam Electronic Circuits - Datasheets
Electronic Components Datasheets Page936
Electronic Components Datasheets Page937

Substituting transistors

Guide to how to substitute a transistor http://www1.jaycar.com.au/images_uploaded/transubs.pdf

Transistor Equivalents for the substitution of modern transistors ...

Small program to aide transistor substitution (very small database but you can add your own) http://www.elektroda.net/download/file842.html

http://hometown.aol.co.uk/oldradioparts/semiconductors.htm

Replacing Transistors Tips http://www.epanorama.net/circuits/component_replacements.html

Cross Reference: Transistor Cross Reference Database

NTE Electronics Cross Reference Search

SK Cross Reference

Fairchild Semiconductor - Parametric Search

Electronics Repair Tips Information & Electronics Cross Reference

Tektronix Semiconductor Cross Reference Page

Transistor

The educational encyclopedia, datasheets, component search

Component Cross Reference

Sci.electronics.repair FAQ: SMD Transistors/Diode cross-ref

transistor cross reference - Google Search

transistor cross reference - PartMiner Component Guide

Electronic component- search, data sheets, cross reference, catalogs

Parts cross reference / Electronics-lab.com directory

HP / Agilent Electronic Test Equipment Parts and Service Information

RCA CED Player Diode and Transistor Reference Guide

Ampex Goodies

MITA Parts Suppor

The Defpom FET Transistor Cross Reference Page

cross reference semiconductor on GlobalSpec

Tektronix P/N to Generic Transistor Type Cross Reference

transistor cross reference - Google Search


SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES (Integrated Publishing: http://www.tpub.com/neets/book7/)

  SEMICONDUCTOR

-DIODE  Lets not forget our lowly diode semiconductor.  This is a simple PN junction but there are a number of special use diodes out there.  Interested in finding out more about diodes?  Then try this link. http://www.avtechpulse.com/faq.html/ 

 
 

Semiconductor applications
Semiconductor theory
Energy bands
Covalent bonding
Doping process
Semiconductor diode
PN Junction operation
Junction Barrier
PN Junction application
Diode characteristics
Diode identification
Diode maintenance
Summary
Answers

Light Emitting Diodes -

 
 

LED Basics
Current Limiting Resistor Calculator

LED Information and Data
Light-emitting diodes - Chapter 3: DIODES AND RECTIFIERS - Volume
TechIMO Forums - LED resistor questions
LEDs 101
Don's LED FAQ
LED Headlamp
Pinball News - First and Free
AccurateLighting.com - HO Scale - Electrical Components - Bulbs/LEDs
Engineering Reference Information
wiring of LED's

LED Circuits

Transistor theory
PNP Transistor Operation
The basic transistor amplifier
Types of bias
Amplifier classes of operation
Transistor configurations
Transistor specifications
Precautions
Microelectronics
Summary
Answers

The tunnel diode
Tunnel diode energy diagram
Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)
SCR Structure
TRIAC
Optoelectronic Devices
Photodiode
Transistors
Field Effect Transistors
JFET symbols and bias voltages
Effects of bias on N-channel depletion MOSFET
Summary
Answers

The power transformer
The conventional full-wave rectifier
The bridge rectifier
Filters
The capacitor filter
LC Choke-Input Filter
Ac component in an LC choke-input filter.
Resistor-Capacitor (RC) Filters
Failure analysis of the resistor-capacitor (RC) filter
Voltage regulation
Series voltage regulator
Current regulators
Voltage multipliers
Short Circuit Protection
Summary
Answers

BATTERIES FOR OLD TRANSISTOR RADIOS

Old Transistor Radio Batteries
The adventures of Monty's old radio
Antique Radio Page: Transistor Radios - Novelty
THE TRANSISTOR RADIO DIRECTORY
Radio Links
Transistor radio
old radios antique radios vintage radios
motorola old radio
Saving Old Military Batteries
Simple Home-Built Radio Projects
Battery Types
Cross Reference
DCarbon Zinc
Discontinued Batteries

SMD MARKINGS - Codes

THE SMD CODEBOOK   SMD Codes. SMD devices are, by their very nature, too small to carry ...... SMD
ceramic capacitors are sometimes marked with a code, consisting of one or ...
http://www.angelfire.com/electronic2/rch/smt.html SMD Marking Codes opps...
http://www.angelfire.com/electronic2/rch/smt0.html - 15k - Similar pages
http://www.smtnet.com/index.htm?fuseaction=search_submit&sea... - 39k - Similar pages

Old Transistor Radios 

Transistor Radio Directory       (Aldo Andreani) http://www.geocities.com/aldoandr/transistor.html
(Wonderful resource for information on the transistor.)

Transistor NOVELTY RADIOS for sale {and WANTED}
Novelty Radios FOR SALE {11-09-00} UPDATED!! To talk
to me LIVE if I am online use "YAHOO". ...
Description: novelty transistor radios for sale.

http://www.justradios.com/valve.html
Vintage Transistor schematics/diagrams
Welcome to oldradios.com
OLD TRANSISTOR RADIOS
Sarah's Transistor Radios
Old Transistor Radio Batteries
Vintage Transistor Radio Circuit Diagrams - Schematics - Servicing 
Radiophile.com - Antique Radios
Russian old vacuum tube portable transistor radios
Text Index of Phil's Old Radios
The Original Old Time Radio (OTR) WWW Pages. Old-Time Radio at its
Russian old transistor radios


Semiconductors

COMPLETE SEMICONDUCTOR INFRMATION http://ece-www.colorado.edu/~bart/book/title.htm

Welcome to Semiconductor Technology
Welcome to Semiconductor Technology, Inc
Introduction to Semiconductor Technology
Welcome to MOSCHI
SemiTech
www.ieee.org/journal/tcad
Welcome
Britney Spears guide to Semiconductor Physics: semiconductor
TI Semiconductors: Analog DSP Digital Signal Processing Power

Semiconductors
www.digikey.com      Search Our Huge Selection of Quality Electronic Components Today
Semiconductors
www.Toshiba.com/Power      Thinner, Faster, and more reliable Create winning designs with Toshiba

Philips Semiconductors

National Semiconductor, The Power of Analog

Semiconductors

Fairchild Semiconductor - Global Leader in Power Optimization

Cypress Home

TI Semiconductors: Analog DSP Digital Signal Processing Power 

Zetex Semiconductors .:. Home Page

Britney Spears guide to Semiconductor Physics: semiconductor

Maxim Analog, Mixed-Signal, RF, Wireless, Powerline, Fiber, Power

Semiconductors: Electronic Components and Transistors for Power

Integrated Circuits http://www.interq.or.jp/japan/se-inoue/e_ic.htm

Integrated Circuits (Chips)

WWW LINKS

Links to University and Industry Laboratories

Links to Semiconductor Companies

MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy)

Nanotechnology and Semiconductors

Organic Semiconductors-Transistors

Solar Cells

Vacuum Technology

whatis?com 

TRANSISTORS... transistor - semiconductor - amplifier - bipolar transistor - field-effect transistor - capacitor - inductor 

 Learning Path: Electronics

AM Receiver Basics  http://www.electronics-tutorials.com/receivers/receiver-basics.htm

FM Receiver Basics  http://www.electronics-tutorials.com/receivers/fm-radio-receivers.htm

Transistor - Webopedia Definition and Links

Transistor radio

GalaxyM31.com
The M31 Galaxy of Transistor Radios is a... USA TODAY AWARD
and a and one of Yahoo!'s "Picks of the Week". ...


Transistor 6

Here is a mechanical bug at the Park Street Bridge between Alameda and Oakland,  CA. Designed and painted by Schmoe with a little help from Estria. ---

Encyclopedia.com - Results for transistor

Electric Library's Free Encyclopedia transistor electronic device used as a voltage and current AMPLIFIER, consisting of SEMICONDUCTOR materials that share ...

How does a transistor radio work?

Transistors and amplification introductory
Basic information. http://landau1.phys.virginia.edu/classes/241L/transist/transold.htm 

NEWS Flash!! -Click HERE for the latest breaking Semiconductor Industry News.

Transistor Acronyms 
A simple Microphone Amplifier Circuit  
Transistor Radio Batteries
Nano - Transistor - the latest!
Semiconductor Java Applets *****
The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits  
- Textbook for HP Articles. This book is rated Five Stars by Amazon readers - excellent book!

NEW!!!   Search for EVERYTHING you need at GlobalSpec.com Design, Manufacturing, Electronics, Mechanical, everything!    Don't pass this up.  You will have to register but it is free.  Your gateway to thousands of companies offering everything you need in your work. 

This specialized search engine focuses exclusively on engineering and technical information. GlobalSpec provides "engineering context and relevancy"and access to the Hidden Web.   Plus much, much more! and access to the Hidden Web.   Plus much, much more!

A WONDERFUL PHYSICS SITE: Hyper Physics http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hframe.html

  • ELECTRONICS PAGE:       DON'T MISS OUR ELECTRONICS PAGE.

  • AMATEUR RADIO PAGE:    DON'T MISS OUR HAM RADIO PAGE.



    CSG - Computer Support Group
    TRANSISTOR SIMULATOR AND CALCULATOR

    New From: http://www.csgnetwork.com/transistorcalc.html

    This calculator requires the use of Javascript enabled and capable browsers. Our calculator determines the math of transistors, based on data entered. Our default conditions are calculated on loading of the calculator but can be changed and recalculated. Data entry is on the left, a representative schematic is in the middle and results are on the right two areas. You can pass your mouse (or click on it) over the blue underlined text in the calculator to obtain more information about that area.

    Inputs
     Voltages
    VCC 
     

    V 
          

    VEE 

    Component Values
    Polarity     
    Beta      
    R1    Ohms
    R2    Ohms

    Schematic Calculated Results
     Voltages

    V

     

    V

     Power
    P  

     Currents
    Ic 
    Ib 
    Ie 

     Conditions
     Saturation
     Cutoff   

          
    Version 1.4.1


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