Go To:  http://www.101science.com  -  Your internet science directory and learning center.

| Amateur Radio | Amazon.com |Biology | Books | Chemistry | Data Sheets | Electronics | Math | Microscope | NASA-TV |
| Photography | Physics | Radio Astronomy | Robots | Science News | Space-Astronomy | Transistors | Search This Site |

Return to www.101science.com home page.  

PAGE 1 INDEX:  1. Introduction  2. Basic Electricity  3. Basic Electronics  4. Transistors    5. Digital Electronics  Capacitors  Toroids  (NEWS)

PAGE 2 INDEX:  6. Shop Practices/Test Equipment  7. Amateur Radio  8.Television/Video  9. Robots  10. Reference/EE  11. LINKS  12. Equipment for Sale  13. DSP (A Crash Course)

How to navigate 101science.com       


ELECTRONICS "Software" - with software downloads. UPDATED!!!

Amateur Radio "Ham" Page

Search 101science.com pages:

THEN: VERY IMPORTANT!! Use you browser's "Find on this page" capability to search for words on a page.    Usually Ctrl + F will work.



Knowing about good electronic shop practices begins with introduction to the basic tools and test instruments used in electronic repair, production and troubleshooting.  It continues with "hands-on" activity directed towards learning practical skills such as soldering and de-soldering and making connecting leads and cables. Also knowing how to make printed circuit boards and enclosures is important. as well as, component replacement techniques, testing and troubleshooting.  We start below with learning how to solder, an everyday skill needed by anyone in electronics.

10. TEST EQUIPMENT - Invest in a good bench-top or handheld multimeter.  Look for one with an auto-ranging feature.  This feature allows the meter to automatically adjust to the proper range for testing.  Measurements are a little slower than making the changes by hand but offer protection from incorrect switch settings and ease of use.  This is particularly true of resistance reading where you may have no idea of where to start.  Expect to pay $50-$150 for a new accurate auto-ranging meter.  The second item of importance is an oscilloscope.  I feel this is the most important piece of test equipment in the shop.  

(SEE What is an oscilloscope and how do you use it? >>http://www.cs.tcd.ie/courses/baict/bac/jf/labs/scope/oscilloscope.html It should have an input bandwidth of at least  50 MHz or higher and a dual trace is recommended.  A delayed horizontal trigger is also desired to allow viewing of short duration voltage changes.  You should be able to find a good 100 MHz oscilloscope for around $100 at a local hamfest.  A frequency counter of at least 100 MHz with an input sensitivity of around 25 Milivolts is the next item needed.  A variety of signal generators, transistor test sets, and capacitor test sets will round out your basic test equipment bench.  Try to obtain name brand test equipment.  Your initial investment will save you money in the long run as you will not be satisfied long with inferior test equipment.

See a listing of web links to test equipment sources....TEST EQUIPMENT SOURCES.

Check out the "Poor Man's Spectrum Analyzer".  http://www.science-workshop.com/

Build your own test equipment and much more.

Electronics Lab - Home SUPER SITE!!
K6LS Test Equipment Links

Salkow's Territory Index to Electronic Test Equipment
Test Solutions | Company
Electronic kits,electronics hobby and plans

Commercial Test Equipment Dealer - URL: http://www.Calright.com
Title:- Electronic Test Equipment Sales, Rentals, Leasing and Service
Description: Find Calright, Calright instruments, used test equipment, used electronic test equipment, refurbished test equipment and other pre-owned electronic test and
measurement equipment to buy or rent.


Step one is to have the proper soldering iron, solder and technique.  The soldering iron's tip size and wattage should match the size of the job.  If you are working on printed circuit boards a 25 watt pencil sized iron is appropriate with tips 1/8th inch or smaller.  Cordless irons work well here and may be less likely to induce unwanted voltages.  Bench-top thermostatically controlled irons can be ideal for most work.  The temperature of the iron should be adjusted just high enough  to heat the part being solder to just above the melting point of the solder.  This is usually around 360 degrees F.  The tip temperature will need to be somewhere around 460 to heat the part sufficiently and melt the solder.  You must also consider the problems of static discharges with any iron if you are working on circuits with installed sensitive integrated circuits or field effect transistors.  You may also need to use a heat sink to protect installed parts from excessive heat.  Alligator clips or heat sink clamps will help.  The main purpose of the iron is to heat the part being soldered to just high enough temperature to melt the solder.  The solder (60/40 tin/lead of .025 to .040 inches in diameter) is place on the part being soldered not the iron.  Although briefly touching the solder to the iron tip prior to the actual soldering can be helpful in transferring the irons heat to the part.  Avoid touching the solder to the iron when soldering; touch the solder to the part.  This is insurance against a cold solder joint which is to be avoided.  A cold solder joint is one where the part was not hot enough to melt the solder and results in a poor connection.  Normally the use of a rosin core solder is sufficient for most soldering jobs.  Occasionally for larger work adding a separate soldering rosin paste may facilitate a better job.  For larger work a handheld soldering gun is appropriate.  Even larger work such as copper water pipes will require the use of a propane torch.  For copper water pipes be sure the solder contains no lead.  The larger the job the larger diameter solders are appropriate.   Regardless of the size of the project the basic principles are the same.  The finished soldering job should be smooth and shiny, not dull.  On new printed circuit boards it is often helpful to apply a tin coating to the copper runs to insure all the connections are of low resistance and avoid later problems due to corrosion.  Click>> for BASIC SOLDERING GUIDE


Soldering Tutorial -- by Alan Winstanley
Soldering Tutorial -- From Elecraft - Click on "Builder Resources"
The Art of Soldering -- Kit Building Too! -- From Mike WT9W
Soldering FAQ -- From EPE Online
Soldering PL-259 Coax Plugs -- From W8WWV
PL-259 connectors on RG-8X type coax - From K6MHE
Soldering The Dreaded PL-259 -- From SolderIt
Unsoldering And Recovering Old Electronic Components -- From IZ7ATH, Talino Tribuzio
Soldering Guide http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/solder.htm



Test anything with a scope http://octopus.freeyellow.com/octopus.html

Build Your Own Test Equipment
by Homer L. Davidson

Every shop needs a well regulated variable voltage power supply for bench top work.   When building and testing new circuits a power supply  is essential.  Here is a diagram for a LM317T Variable Voltage power supply - Click HERE. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Bill_Bowden/page12.htm#317.gif  (Note: This is a link to one of Bill Bowden's wonderful pages.)

Try this Electronic Calculator site made available by John Jenkens


Also try Radio Calculators http://www.qsl.net/yo5ofh/data_sheets/amateur%20radio%20computer.htm

Test anything with a scope http://octopus.freeyellow.com/octopus.html

Build Your Own Test Equipment
by Homer L. Davidson

Every shop needs a well regulated variable voltage power supply for bench top work.   When building and testing new circuits a power supply  is essential.  Here is a diagram for a LM317T Variable Voltage power supply - Click HERE. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/Bill_Bowden/page12.htm#317.gif  (Note: This is a link to one of Bill Bowden's wonderful pages.)

Try this Electronic Calculator site made available by John Jenkens


Also try Radio Calculators http://www.qsl.net/yo5ofh/data_sheets/amateur%20radio%20computer.htm



While you can get by with a make-shift workbench made out of anything handy like a few boxes or boards but a real workbench is a delight.  Some use a door laid flat across some saw horses as a start.  Building a real sturdy workbench out of two by four lumber is better.  

A nice long electrical outlet strip is also most a must.  You can see what I mean in the picture at the left.  The outlet strip is just below the row of colored plastic bins.  A shelf on your workbench to hold your test equipment is also nice.   Also, notice the light above the workbench - also a must.  You can also add swinging lamps as well.  If you can afford it you can purchase a nice workbench like in the picture already built.  A good sturdy stool or chair is a must as well.

Lots of additional shelving and storage boxes will help you sort out parts you may have and keep the labeled for easy location when you need them.

Try to keep your workbench free after you complete a job or project.  Otherwise you will end up with no bench top space left to start new projects.  That is why additional shelf and storage is a must.  If you follow these rules you will have a nice looking as well as an efficient place to work. Electrostatic protection of delicate high speed IC's should be considered also when constructing your work space.  Carpet on the floor is a no-no because of static electricity it can generate.

Also add a waste basket and a metal storage bin or cabinet of some sort to store chemicals.  You will collect control cleaner, glues and various other chemicals that need proper and safe storage

A separate workbench could be added for drilling and other metal working.  A nice vise, grinding wheels, and drill press are necessary at times for building metal enclosure boxes.  Enjoy your new workbench and work space!









If you build your own electronic equipment, this is "THE" book you need!


Secrets of Rf Circuit Design
by Joseph J. Carr


Also check out these great RF (Radio Frequency) books.

 AMATEUR RADIO   Don't miss our Amateur Radio Page - CLICK HERE


Television means "seeing at a distance".  It may be described as a system for the conversion of light rays from still or moving scenes and pictures into electric signals for transmission or storage, and subsequent reconversion into visual images on a screen.  

Basically the image formed by the camera lens is focused on a light sensitive material that is scanned in horizontal lines with each line following closely beneath it.  The light intensity (and color) is converted into an electrical signal and transmitted over the air or through cables to a receiver.  The "TV" receiver converts the electrical signals back into scan lines traced on a cathode ray tube (CRT).  The fluorescent material on the face of the CRT is activated by the CRT's scanning electron beam to re-form the picture. 

NTSC signal information: http://www.seanet.com/Users/bradford/ntscvideo.html
Free television and video articles and guides HERE.  

Click HERE to view a "large list" of links related to television and video.

9. ROBOTS:  There is always a demand for more information about simple to complex robots.  See our Robotics page by clicking HERE.



I = V/R        V = I*R       R = V/I       P = V x I      I = P/V       V= P/I      P = V^2/R       R = V^2/P

Series resistance formula:  Rt = R1 + R2 + R3 + R....., etc.

Total power in a series circuit: Pt = P1 + P2 + P3 + P...... etc.

Resistance's in parallel:  1/Rt  =  1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + 1/R......, etc.

Kirchhoff's Law - The algebraic sum of the currents into any point of the circuit must equal the algebraic sum of the currents out of that point.

Time vs frequency:  Time T = 1/f  or f  = 1/T    
Wavelength = velocity/frequency

Inductance in series or parallel:  same formula as resistance's with L substituted for R.

Series capacitance: use formula for parallel resistance and substitute C for R.

Parallel capacitance: use formula for series resistance and substitute C for R.

Electronic schematics use a number of standard of symbols to display an electronic circuit on paper.  These schematics are useful in troubleshooting unfamiliar circuits.  To see some examples of electronic schematic symbols click >>

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING HAND HELD CALCULATOR - Electrical Engineering functionality in an electronic software upgrade for the Texas Instruments TI-89 and TI-92 Plus is available.  Details click; HERE http://www.ti.com/calc/docs/eepro.htm 

Unit Conversions - - Go to the 101science.com Calculations Page.

More Unit Conversion - - HERE. http://www.speckdesign.com/Tools2a.html 

The Fourier Transform

Fourier Transform- Modules - Learning Modules for Electronics
Comment on Conjugate pair fast Fourier transform - Electronics Letters
Derivation of Fourier transform of discrete series from z 
Two-dimensional Fourier transform electronic correlation and 

Fourier-transform electronic spectroscopy in the near-infrared 

Session XC19 - Liquid State Dynamics.

Session E15 - Multidimensional Spectroscopies IV.

‘Instant’ Fourier transform—[Electronics Letters 13, 122 (1977)]

Fourier Transform by Bartosz Milewski  http://www.relisoft.com

The Physics of Sound

  1. Sampling Sounds
  2. Fourier Analysis
  3. Complex Numbers
  4. Digital Fourier Transform
  5. FFT
  6. Frequency Analyzer

    Whistle a melody and watch this program graph the pitch in real time. The Frequency Analyzer
  7. http://plaza.harmonix.ne.jp/~tosiwata/softs.html

Time and Frequency Domains http://www.du.edu/~etuttle/electron/elect6.htm

Definition http://www.answers.com/topic/fast-fourier-transform

DSP use of FFT http://wug.physics.uiuc.edu/courses/phys344/fall03/344exp/Lab6_DSP/Lab6_DSP.pdf

Understanding Discrete Fourier Transforms http://rfdesign.com/mag/radio_understanding_discrete_fourier/

MUST HAVE!  TI-83 Plus BETTER!  TI-89 BEST!  Voyage 200


The WWW links on this page will take you directly to the various web site pages.  Your browser URL address line will tell you the origin of the site.

NEW Chip Directory  http://www.hitex.com/chipdir/
NEW  ePanorama 
NEW  Electromagnetics  http://emlib.jpl.nasa.gov/
NEW and EXCELLENT! EE Theorems and Formulas
IEEE  http://www.ieee.org/
Smith Chart Derivation and usage Information
VK2TIP Design Tutorials (Amateur Radio Oriented)

Electronic Circuit Design Tools - Links

The Circuit Designer's Companion   A must have book!

Circuits Archive
Electronics (Comprehensive) Information
Power Amplifier Design Guidelines
450 watt 6m Amplifier
A New Audio Amplifier Circuit Design
Transistor Circuit Design
Circuit Design Simulation and Analysis Software

AIM-SPICE FREE DOWNLOAD http://www.aimspice.com/
PSpice and Related CAD Packages FAQ

USING SPICE AND WHY - http://www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits/Ref/REF_7.html


SPICE Basics
[PDF] Diode Characteristics
PHY2003 - SPICE Models and Subcircuits
The Life of SPICE

Note:  SPICE is the basic program written may years ago and revised many times.  Electronic Workbench a relatively expensive graphical program uses SPICE as the basic engine.  Old SPICE is not all that hard to use and is very reliable.

Eagle Printed Circuit Freeware  http://www.cadsoftusa.com/freeware.htm (New Version)
CAD-Migos Software Tools 
Filter Wiz 
Intusoft Magnetics Designer Transformer, Inductor and Choke Design Software 
Programs in Circuits Archive 

The Iowa Logic Specification Language 

DOWNLOAD APLAC 7.51 Circuit Simulation and Design Tool

National SPICE models

Circuits Archive
Electronics (Comprehensive) Information
Power Amplifier Design Guidelines
450 watt 6m Amplifier
A New Audio Amplifier Circuit Design
Transistor Circuit Design
Circuit Design Simulation and Analysis Software

Free Down-loadable book list follows:

Electronic Amplifier Circuits, Joseph Petit and Malcolm McWhorter, 1961, 325 pages
This textbook is all about the theory and design of amplifiers.  While mostly containing tube circuits it does include some information on transistor . Plenty of math in this one, it concentrates on wide band (e.g., video) amplifiers. 12 meg pdf format perfect copy for printing. un-renewed copyright download

Theory and Applications OF Electron tubes. U.S. Army/air force 1952  From basic theory through all types of circuits. audio, rf, osc etc. 229 pages, perfect for printing. 17 meg download

Handbook of Analog Computations. All about analog computers and how they work. Collage level book. 401 pages size 24 meg, unrenewed copyright Donated. download 

CP/M8000 by Digital Research. A set of 3 books programmers guide, system guide, users guide. total 510 pages. 23 meg, Donated download 

United States Navy Electronic Training Course. Full course NOT scanned, made for cd by the navy. 24 modules 4100 pages. For full details and download click here

Radio Laboratory Hand book. year 2004 in the public domain. All about cables, transmission lines and antennas. 133 pages not scanned direct pdf. size 60 meg download

U. S. Navy Manual on Grounding. Deep into grounding theory for your radio or test lab. learn how to truly protect yourself and your equipment. this manual will teach you how. 814 pages searchable pdf format. size 10 meg download

 Amateur Radio Handbook 1959 This was a bigger seller then the ARRL Handbook. Full 810 pages in pdf format size 60 meg unrenewed copyright download

Crystal Sets to Side Band by Frank W. Harris K01YE This is not scanned it is made for pdf. FULL color 372 pages. copyright 2002 NOT to be used else where without written permission of K01YE size 4 meg download  

Trouble Shooting Tektronix scopes. Written by Tektronix it is for their technicians to train repairing their scopes Donated  97 pages size 4 meg download  

Navy Warfare and Radar Systems Handbook. Contains a wealth of knowledge on electronics for radio, IEE buss's  radar, microwaves, antennas etc for complete list and download click here  

Engineering Software (DOS) Links  

Links to Ward College of Technology of the University of Hartford - maintained by Walter Banzhaf mailto:banzhaf@uhavax.hartford.edu 

FOURIER-3 shows Fourier series graphically -Download FOURIER (a .EXE file, 71Kbytes

PHASORS Rotating phasors become V vs. time graphs - Download PHASORS (a ZIPPED file, 250Kbytes when

RFTOOLBX Does calculations for RF systems - Download RFTOOLBOX (a ZIPPED file, 216Kbytes when unzipped)

SNAP Simplied Nodal Analysis Program - simple, DC only - Download SNAP (a ZIPPED file, 150Kbytes when unzipped

TRANALV2 Transmission Line Analysis Program - shows phasors of V and I, with ANY load impedance - Download TRANALV2 (a ZIPPED file, 90Kbytes when unzipped)

TUNING Does stub and L,C matching of loads on transmission lines - Download TUNING (a ZIPPED file, 92Kbytes when unzipped)

MORE Software

Advanced Graphical Scientific Calculator
CASIO Service/Data Software Demo's, etc
Training software system .


Basic Electronics Concept Review 2.0
Test your electronics skills for the Federal Aviation Administration Basic Electronics Screening Test.
RFSim99 OS: Windows 95
OS: Windows 95
Electronics Software Pack 1 1.0.2
Become a better ham operator with these three programs.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT
Electro Tools 1.03
Practice common electronics design with this specialized worksheet.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT
LG Electronics GoldStar Monitor Drivers 7/10/98
Download the Windows 95 drivers for the GoldStar monitor.
OS: Windows 95
LoKon 2.36
Simulate digital circuits.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT
Proteus Lite 5.2
Use this complete electronics design system.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT/2000
Signal Calculator 2.0
Convert dBM and dBV to RMS or Peak Voltages.
OS: Windows 98/NT
DC Circuits Challenge 4.0
Learn or teach electronics.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT
Ved 1.0
Use a VHDL-aware text editor.
OS: Windows 95/NT
MacroSim 1.000
Design and simulate digital electronic circuitry.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT
DesignWorks Lite 4.0d1
Create professional circuit diagrams with this program.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT
CRO Tutor 3.0
Simulate a single-channel cathode ray oscilloscope.
OS: Windows 3.x/95
Networked Bookmarks 1.5
Keep track of users' bookmarks on a network.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT
Delta CD-ROM Device Driver 10/25/00
Download the Delta CD-ROM Device Driver for Windows 95/98/NT.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT
Resistor Colorcode Decoder 1.0
Decode the colored stripes on resistors in electronic components.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT/2000
Youknowbest 3.0
Use this tool to compare products while you are shopping online.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT/2000
NuTest 1.72
Obtain an operator's license for amateur radio.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT/2000
Ohms Law Calculator 1.0.1
Calculate values for electronics with this program.
OS: Windows 95/98/Me

IVEX PC board schematic and layout software
Listing of Science and Engineering Software to Download
NTE Cross Reference software
(Note:  NTE requires a registration form but the  download is free.)
Speaker Box Design
Student Version of Analog Circuit Simulation Program
TRANALV2 transmission line analysis
(Tuned circuit analysis.)
A simple ASCII schematic drawing program. 
* Transceiving, single-turn, loop aerials of various regular shapes.
* Transceiving, single-turn, loop aerials of rectangular shape.
* Receiving, multi-turn, square, loop aerials, ELF to HF.
* Design of single-layer solenoid Rx & Tx tuning & antenna loading coils.
* Centre-fed dipole analysis. Vary freq and feedler length for optimum match.
* Helically-wound antenna performance, top-C loaded with rod or wire.
* Ferrite & iron-dust cored, toroidal coils. Size, Mu, Turns, uH, pF, Freq.
* Base-fed vertical antenna performance, coil-loaded at any height.
* DC & RF characteristics of a shallow-buried radial earth wire.
* VLF to HF Groundwave Propagation. Path loss over various terrains.
* Earth Electrodes and Measurement of Soil Resistance.
* Performance on Long Waves of T Antennas above ground radials system.
* Performance of Inverted-L Antennas above system of ground radials.
* Models Class-AB, Push-pull, Bipolar Linear RF amplifiers up to 30 MHz.
* Models HF transmission line transformers, impedance step-up ratio 4-to-1.
* Analysis of openwire lines, 50Hz-1GHz, for any complex termination.
* Full analysis of balanced lines, 20Hz-1GHz, for any complex termination.
* Full analysis of coaxial lines, 50Hz-1GHz, for any complex termination.
* Full analysis of balanced lines with facilities for line xfmr design.
* Design of 2-band trapped dipole antennas including trap details.
* Design of T & Pi phase-shifting networks for use with antenna arrays.
* Design of T & Pi impedance-matching and phase-shifting networks.
* Simple & folded dipoles. Input Z. Feedline VSWR versus freq. Bandwidth.
* Enter soil characteristics. Display a table of skin depth vs frequency.
* Find safe input power for given cable dimensions and SWR. 0.3-3000 MHz.
* Compute load impedance from measured line input impedance, Zo & length.

Computer Assisted Circuit Design





















simulation of digital circuits. Windows 3.1+.
- RF & Microwave circuit simulation package. Windows 3.1+
- Electronic circuit timing diagram generator. Windows 3.0+.
This software can be used to create 3D circuit boards. Windows 3.1+

Printed Circuit Board Design




clrcode.zip - Computer Assisted color code interpreter. 

- Data for selecting the most popular 3 pin IC regulators. 
- Power Factor Correction Program. Windows 3.1+
  Resistor selection

Links to Other Electronics Software Sites

Shareware Circuit Design 
Engineering Software Database

Electronics Software
Electronics Shareware and Freeware
Electronics Software
CAD and PCB Software
CAD-Migos Software Tools 
Filter Wiz 
Intusoft Magnetics Designer Transformer, Inductor and Choke Design Software 
TuneKit for Windows 
Programs in Circuits Archive 
PSpice and Related CAD Packages FAQ
The Iowa Logic Specification Language 

DOWNLOAD APLAC 7.51 Circuit Simulation and Design Tool

National SPICE models
Electronics Genius 1.0.8
Learn how to identify various electronic components.
OS: Windows (all)
File Size: 2.47MB
License: Free to try, $30 to buy

 Download Now

Electronics, Mechanics, and Computing Principles 8.1 pop
Learn about electronics, mechanics, and computing.
OS: Windows (all)
File Size: 6.48MB
License: Free to try, $24 to buy

 Download Now

AutoTRAX EDA Lite 2.0 pop
Implement complex electronic PCB designs on your PC.
OS: Windows (all)
File Size: 24.2MB
License: Free, $45 to buy

 Secure Download

 Download Now

DesignWorks Lite 4.04 pop
Create professional circuit diagrams with this program.
OS: Windows 95/98/Me/2000/XP
File Size: 2.61MB
License: Free to try, $40 to buy

 Download Now

Signal Calculator 2.0
Convert dBM and dBV to RMS or Peak Voltages.
OS: Windows 98/NT
File Size: 192K
License: Free

 Download Now

RCalc 1.0 pop
Enter the colors of a circuit's resistor and get the value of resistance.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP
File Size: 373K
License: Free

 Download Now

Resistor Value Color Converter 1.0 pop
Find out the value of your resistors.
OS: Windows 95/98/Me/XP
File Size: 419K
License: Free

 Download Now

FlashPIC Developer 3.18
Build your own parallel port hardware.
OS: Windows 95/98/Me/2000/XP
File Size: 1.44MB
License: Free to try, $27 to buy

 Download Now

Resistor Identifier 1.0 pop
Test your electronics resistor.
File Size: 22.6K
License: Free

 Download Now

HAMIC 1.0 pop
Perform circuit and networks calculations, SWR and reactance conversions, and more.
OS: Windows 98/Me/NT/2000/XP
File Size: 1.17MB
License: Free to try, $20 to buy

 Download Now

RVal 1.10 pop
Find the nearest preferred resistor values within a given tolerance.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP
File Size: 35K
License: Free to try, $20 to buy

 Download Now

Solve Elec 1.0 pop
Analyze circuits, draw graphs, and verify circuit related equations.
OS: Windows 98/Me/NT/2000/XP
File Size: 1.94MB
License: Free to try, $30 to buy

 Download Now

Circuit Shop 2.0 pop
Design, simulate, and learn about digital and analog electronic circuits.
OS: Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP
File Size: 1.44MB
License: Free to try, $30 to buy

 Download Now

RFFlow 5.0 pop
Create your own charts and diagrams.
OS: Windows (all)
File Size: 2.59MB
License: Free to try, $49 to buy

 Download Now

Qcad 20.1 pop
Design circuit board layouts.
OS: Windows (all)
File Size: 2.03MB
License: Free to try, $95 to buy

Integrated Circuits 


Integrated circuits are discrete electronic components etched onto a solid state material like silicon.

IC's are very small and one IC can contain hundreds or thousands of components in one package.  IC's are usually either analog or digital.

What is an integrated circuit?
Find out HERE and learn a
lot more.

How do you make (fabricate) an integrated circuit. THE ANSWER IS HERE

Ready for a free online college course on integrated circuits.  Well take a look anyway - HERE.

Semiconductor datasheets on the Web - links to semiconductor manufacturers, including direct links to their datasheets index page  WebBench - Free online amplifier design tool from Nation Semiconductors - http://www.national.com/appinfo/webench/amplifiers/select_topology.cgi

National Datasheets http://www.national.com/catalog/

Overview http://bmrc.berkeley.edu/courseware/ICMfg92/

4000B Series CMOS Functional Diagrams
Internal Structure of Op-amps and Audio Power Amps
Low Power Schottky TTL logic levels
Understanding operational amplifier specifications - application note from TI
Voltage regulators (stabilizers) 78xx a 79xx by ST - warning about some possible problem if the regulator load is too low
Amkor Technlogy IC package data

Chip Directory
- IC info database  

Chipinfo - large IC chip database on-line 
Data Bookshelf - links to different manufacturer datasheet collections, also at  

Datasheet Locator - a free electronic engineering tool that enables you to locate product datasheets fromhundreds of electronic component manufacturers worldwide 
Fairchild - Logic, Memory, EEPROM and Discrete Parts - Very many link to compoennt data 
Free Trade Zone - comprehensive on-line management system for electronics parts, needs registration 
Giant Internet IC Masturbator IC directory - IC pinouts 
IC Master - powerful part number and parameter search capabilities from the industry's leading source on current and discontinued ICs 
Networking IC Directory - listing of IC vendors and their products, to help speed up the process of finding and evaluating key parts for your new networking and broadband design   

ON Semiconductor Datasheets Search - bipolar devices, LS TTL, MECL, analog ICs, thyristors FACT, low-voltage CMOS, analog switches and more   
PartNET - search parts supplier's product information databases  
QuestLink Technology IC Index - information about thousands of integrated circuits, company profiles, contact information, product briefs, and a growing number of datasheets 
R�hrentabellen Electron Tubes and Valves - electron tube data collection 
Search Adobe PDF Online - way to search through more than a million summaries of Adobe� Portable Document Format (PDF) files on the Web, most chip datasheets on the web are PDF files  

SmartData - tool can locate Data Sheets, Application Notes, and other technical data for most electronic components, both current and obsolete, indexes inside the manufacturers' pdf files 
TDS-NET - WEB database for electronics components, over 100 000 component datasheets on-line 

Old data books for integrated circuits

Designing with MSI counters and shift registers. 1970 signetics corp. 93 pages 5.3 meg download
RCA CDP1802 cosmac microprocessor manual.  118 pages 7.9 meg download

Fairchild TTL 1972 Data Book. Contains all the old items no longer in current data books, like the 54/74Hxx and 54/74Sxx plus 54/74/Lxx series also the 93xx and 9Nxx series, includes designing rules. 672 pages 39 meg download

Zilog Z80 1978 Data Book. This is the original Z80 data book. You can design a Z80 based systems using this book. 131 pages 14 meg download

RCA Tube Manual Radiotron R10.  Old edition from 1937 I think. it has all the data on old tubes for vintage equipment. complete copy less covers. 86 pages 8.3 meg download

Signetics  Microprocessor 2650 Data Book.  Year 1975, contains all the data needed to build a computer with the 2650 (same as the Rockwell unit) 187 pages 9.2 meg download

Signetics 8080 Emulation Manual. The MOS 8080 could not match the speed of the bipolar device. so a emulator was used. This is the data book for such a emulator. 110 pages 6.5 meg download

Motorola M6800 Microprocessor Applications Manual. Full 1975 manual, suitable for printing. With this you can build a 6800 based computer system. 713 pages, 38 meg download

Texas Instruments 1976 Data Book.  All  832 pages of it, the full  54/74xx/H/S/L/LS series plus all their usual design/application data. 37 megs   download  

AMD 2900 Family Data Book.  Year 1979 with related support circuits. The building blocks of the 1980's computers.524 pages  34 meg download

Motorola 1969 Micro Electronic Data Book. Contains everything they made up to 1969. MECL-300/350/1000/1200/1600 & MHTL MC660, TTL 54/7400, MC400/500/200/2100/3000/4000, DTL 830/930, DTL200/250, MC700/800/900. also ALL the linear chips and a complete cross reference for chips from all other manufactures of the 1960's. along with tons of application notes. this is the data book bible of the 1960's. 608 pages 28 meg download 

A Collection of Apple I/II Manuals. Includes apple/I  basic & I/II users manuals, pictures of boards. 18 meg download 

AMD 29300/29C300 Programmable Microcomputer building Blocks. Year 1988 size 680 pages. 36 meg download 

Fairchild 1976 Marco-logic Data Book. Includes 9300 and 4700 series plus memory chips. ttl/ecl/mos 234 pages 13 meg download

ITT Engineering Data Book. Year 1946 it contains everything 335 pages data for electronic engineering. 9.4 meg download 

1969 Fairchild Data Book This one even includes the RTL and SH-xxxx parts. size 21 meg. 364 pages. download 

INTEL Memory Design Data Book Year 1977 all 265 pages. All the data on the oldies but goodies plus support chips. size 21 meg download  

Western digital 1983 catalog plus three 1984 data books. total 675 pages of their computer and floppy disk controller chips. size 32 meg  download 


TTL:- Transistor-Transistor Logic
The origional digital IC - the 7400 series is not often used in new equipment today but is still available and used by many hobbyists.  the voltage swing is 0.4 to 2.4 volts and uses a + 5 volt power supply.
TTL output waveform
Ground all unused inputs.  Power consumption is relatively high.

ECL:- Emitter Coupled Logic This is an extremely fast logic type, but uses a lot of power. The main features are:- Very small voltage swing, typically 0.8 volts, from -0.8 to -1.6 volts.
      ECL output waveform
Negative supply voltage with logic levels referred to the positive (ground) supply.
All outputs need pull-down resistors to work. These are usually placed near the input being driven by an output, to minimize signal reflections. A typical pull down resistor is 50 ohms to -2 volts.

CMOS:- Complementary Metal Oxide Silicon.
Also known as 4000 series. A very low power logic, with the following features:-
Supply voltage 2 - 18 volts. Voltage swing is 0 V to supply voltage.

CMOS output waveform

Maximum speed 10 MHz. Extremely high input impedance, and inputs will float if not pulled high or low. Power consumption virtually zero if not switching, rising with switching speed.

HCMOS:- High speed CMOS.
Often called HC, as in 74HC00. Also very low power, but faster, and supply voltage 2 - 6 volts. Voltage swing is 0 V to supply voltage. Maximum switching speed about 40 MHz. HCT series, as in 74HCT00 has similar speed, power and output characteristics, but input levels like TTL. Still higher speeds available with VHC series and ACMOS.

Integrated Circuits (Chips)