Learn and research space and astronomy, Geology, Earth Science, science, chemistry, biology, physics, math, electronics, and much more. 101science.com is the internet science PORTAL to more than 20,000 science sites.  This site is FREE! 

  Go To:  http://www.101science.com  -  Your internet science directory and learning center.

(Including Earth Science & Geology & Ecology & Physical Geography




Amateur Telescope Making


Solar System



***Astronomy - General


Star Charts


Light Pollution

Star Size and Mass



Black Holes


Stars Bluest


Stars Brightest

Meade EXT


Cloud Cover

Messier Objects


Meteor Showers

Stellar Evolution



Sun (Ours)





Earth Sciences



Educational Resources





Radio Astronomy - Amateur Radio Astronomy

Some small foot-print astronomical software choices - HERE

This free astronomy web links page is provided for your personal educational and research purposes.


Don't head out to your dark sky site without checking here for current cloud conditions.  You won't be able to see a thing if it is overcast so save yourself a frustrating trip and check here first.

CMISS The CIMSS (Cloud, precip forecasting)
Clear Dark Sky 

NOAA - USA Cloud Cover Prediction Map

Data from: http://www.nws.noaa.gov/mdl/forecast/graphics/MAV/MAV.SKYC_000.html

FIRST, SEARCH 101science.com pages:

Search 101science.com pages:

THEN: VERY IMPORTANT!! Use you browser's "Find on this page" capability to search for words on a page.  
Usually Ctrl + F will work




UTC to LOCAL Time Converter

Converter Chart (Feel free to print a copy out for your personal use.)

What is Universal Coordinated Time - UTC?

Coordinated Universal Time
to (winter) U.S Local Time

Eastern Standard Time

UTC -5

Central Standard Time

UTC -6

Mountain Standard Time

UTC -7

Pacific Standard Time

UTC -8

Alaska Standard Time

UTC -9

Hawaii-Aleutian Standard Time

UTC -10



***New search engine IDs stars in sky photos:
Astrometry.net (see link below) will hunt down and name objects in any amateur photo: Story at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21903781/

Astrometry.net:  http://astrometry.net/

Sloan Digital Sky Survey - http://cas.sdss.org/dr2/en/  This website presents data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a project to make a map of a large part of the universe. We would like to show you the beauty of the universe, and share with you our excitement as we build the largest map in the history of the world.

AstroWeb Links:  http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/astroweb.html

Organizations Astronomy Departments (581 records)
Professional and Amateur Organizations (268 records)
Space Agencies and Organizations (56 records)
Observing resources Observatories and Telescopes (375 records) Telescope Observing Schedules (27 records)
Meteorological Information (15 records)
Astronomical Survey Projects (90 records)
Data resources Data and Archive Centers (137 records)
Astronomy Information Systems (34 records)
Bibliographical Services (29 records)
Astronomical Journals and Publications (96 records)
Astronomy & astrophysics preprints (42 records)
Abstracts of Astronomical Publications (26 records)
Conference Proceedings (46 records)
Astronomy-related Libraries (51 records)
Other Library resources (15 records)
Personal Web pages (702 records) (see also StarHeads database)
People (lists) (7 records)
Jobs (44 records)
Conferences and Meetings (46 records) (see also CFHT master list)
Newsgroups (at least somewhat astronomy-related) (38 records)
Mailing Lists (at least somewhat astronomy-related) (18 records)
Computer Science
Astronomy software servers (156 records)
Document Preparation Tools (6 records)
Overviews & technical notes for protocols (8 records)
Computer Science-related Resources (25 records)
Research areas
Space Physics
Radio Astronomy (157 records)
Infrared Astronomy (130 records)
Optical Astronomy (282 records)
Ultraviolet Astronomy (46 records)
High-Energy Astronomy (107 records)
Space Astronomy (193 records)
Solar Astronomy (96 records)
Solar System and Extrasolar Planets (83 records)
History of Astronomy (30 records)
Earth, Ocean, Atmosphere, Space Sciences (45 records)
Physics-related Resources (109 records)
Professional and Amateur Organizations (268 records)
Educational resources (358 records)
Astronomy Pictures (123 records)
Miscellaneous Primary Lists of Astronomy Resources (12 records)
Other lists of astronomy resources (58 records)
Miscellaneous Resources (123 records)


Below you can learn all you need to know about the Earth and Universe.

The Earth & Moon
An Eclipse
The Force of Gravity
Gravitational Effects
The Solar System
Solar System: Minor Bodies
  The Planets
The Sun
The Universe
The Big Bang

1.  SPACE    2.  NASA     3.  SHUTTLE     4.  UNIVERSE     5. ASTRONOMY     6.  MAPS


 (ScienceIQ.comScienceIQ.com) Delivers fascinating and engaging science facts daily to your email, and offers an extensive science facts online archive. Topics are diverse and range from the human mind to nanotechnology, and from basic scientific concepts to the latest discoveries.

First Person
A video series profiling JPLers and their work.
+ View video in RealPlayer
Senior robotics engineer Dr. Edward Tunstel describes
how rovers are developed and tested on Earth and how the current
Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, are put to work on the red planet.
Please visit the Mars Exploration Rover site for more rover information.

Courtesy JPL/NASA

Best general astronomy book for amateur astronomers and those wanting an easy to read description and understanding of astronomy.


Best in-depth introduction to astrophysics book below.  Requires some math abilities to fully appreciate.



Astronomy Formulas by James Q. Jacobs
Astronomy Formulas II, By James Q. Jacobs

Yahoo! Directory Astronomical Calendars > Formulas and Constants
SCI.SPACE FAQ No. 04 - space/math
Graham Pattison's CCD Astronomy - Telescope Formula's
Astronomy Formulas
Definition of Astronomy - wordIQ Dictionary & Encyclopedia




Calculate distances (REAL TIME) between solar system planets and the sun. 
Click HERE.  Solar System Live

Solar System Running Dynamics - Orbital data (java). Click Here

Interactive Java Solar System Model with data. Click HERE

SUN (Earth)  

Solar X-rays:
Geomagnetic Field:




From http://www.n3kl.org/sun/

Link to current sun image at high resolution.  http://umbra.nascom.nasa.gov/eit/images/latest_eit_304_full.gif

SUN STORMS - The Movie!!  - HERE

Solar System Webpages About the Sun

Sun Websites

Some Solar Observatories and Research Centers

Solar Space Research 

The following WWW links will take you directly to the various web site pages.  Your browser URL address line will tell you the origin of the site.

See the International Space Station from Your City!

Click on the solar image for more information.
Click here for more solar information.
The powers of 10. Click here  - No it isn't quite what you might think.

Small foot-print astronomical programs.

alw202.zip WIN32s, Win95, 98, NT Astronomy Lab 2 is one of the most innovative, interesting, and useful 32-bit Windows shareware astronomy programs available. Astronomy Lab 2 generates animated movies that simulate a host of astronomical events (including solar and lunar eclipses, lunar occultations, planetary occultations, transits of Mercury and Venus, the orbits of Jupiter's bright moons, and the motions of the planets in the plane of the ecliptic). In addition, Astronomy Lab 2 produces several reports that contain predictions of the most important and exciting astronomical events of the present, future and past. Also, Astronomy Lab 2 generates several graphs that illustrate many fundamental astronomical concepts.

CIRCUMSPACE v1.0 DOS 192kb A space travel simulator from the author of SkyGlobe. Displays the sky as seen from anywhere within several hundred light years of Earth. Click to travel instantly to any of 7780 stars, or choose the warp mode to animate the journey quickly and smoothly. Learn which stars are neighbours and which distant. A great way to show off 386 and local bus technology. No maths chip needed. $15 reg.

ECU (Earth Centred Universe) Dave Lane's excellent shareware planetarium and telescope control program. .

DOB_PC DOS 165kb Displays the object's Azimuth and Elevation in real-time on the screen. As well as a Dobsonian telescope, you need a laptop personal computer which is running under MS-DOS or Windows. No advanced graphics modes are required. DOB-PC will even work with a PC based on an 8088. You need a 3.5 inch disk drive which can be used to load the program and data files onto your hard disk or, if you have no hard disk, to run the program directly from the floppy disk. You simply choose an object, which can be a bright star, a Messier object, an NGC object or a planet, and DOB_PC displays, on the screen of your laptop computer, the direction to point your Dobsonian at that particular instant.

optical.zip DOS, 26kb Given mirror diameter, focal ratio and eyepiece details, this program will compute: Aperture, Mirror F.L., Effective F-stop, Eyepiece F.L., Telescope Power, Eye Relief, Ramsden Disk, Mag. Limit, Dawes Limit. Includes Pascal source code.

PC-space DOS, 114kb: navigate space in realistic 3-D with this freeware simulator.

Planet DOS, 43kb This Program computes information relating to the position, distance, magnitude, etc.. for the major planets on a specified date and time. Refer to PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY WITH YOUR CALCULATOR by Peter Duffett-Smith for the calculation methods. Includes Pascal source code.

react.bas DOS, 4kb A small QBASIC utility that uses blinking stars to measure your reaction time. Use this to establish your personal equation for occultation timings.

rtastro.zip DOS, 271kb Displays Alt and Az of object or of point of known RA and Dec. This software was initially written to make life easier for owners of Dobsonian reflecting telescopes, which use simple alt- azimuth mountings, instead of the heavier and more expensive equatorial mountings found on many telescopes. However, it has turned out to be extremely valuable for observers using any kind of telescope, or binoculars. It allows one to determine very quickly whether an object is visible, and if so, how high in the sky it is. It also allows one to select a sequence of objects, and display information about each one. It corrects positions of objects in catalogs for precession, and also contains a very accurate determination of local sidereal time, typically within one or two seconds of the sidereal time calculated by the U.S. Naval Observatory's "Floppy Almanac". This information is updated continuously, yielding accurate real-time values for an object's altitude, azimuth, and for sidereal time, for as long as you wish.

SKYGLOBE v3.6 DOS 369kb Award-winning Top Ten PC planetarium program that is fast, fun, and easy to use. SkyGlobe has over 29,000 stars, constellation lines, the planets, Sun, and Moon, the Milky Way, the Messier Objects, and much more. It is the fastest program of its kind available, and uses the mouse or convenient command keys. Now with better printing, GIF image display, and support for up to 250,000 stars! $20 reg fee.

StarClock1.0 DOS, 70kb is a freeware program for PC/DOS machines (VGA required) which animates evolution of stars (0.8 to 25 solar masses, solar metallicity) in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, more exactly in the log(L/L_solar) vs. log(T_eff) plane.

StarTrak Psion 3 series is a computerised database, containing information on the planets, all the Messier objects, as well as a number of other objects in the sky.

WinMeeus Win3.1 116kb (aka AstroWin and AstroMeeus) Accurately calculates solar system phenomena (rise and set times, lunar phase, calendars, eclipses, twilight, etc.). It is an implementation of selected algorithms from Astronomical Formulae for Calculators by Jean Meeus.

For Palm OS. . .   http://balinka.com/palm.htm

For PDA use . . . . http://www.eastbayastro.org/index/advices/astro-pdas.htm

Interesting software . . . http://astrotips.com

Downloadable software . . . http://www.scienceu.com/library/software/download/astronomy/index.html

Home Planet . . . http://www.fourmilab.ch/homeplanet/hp3.html




StarChild: The planet Mercury
Mercury - A planet of extreme

The Planet Mercury
Planet Mercury
Mercury - Planet - Science - The New York Times
Space Today Online - Exploring the planet Mercury
Water Ice on Mercury
Mercury Profile
Incoming View of Mercury



Free http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/online.bks/mars/contents.htm


Mars Global Surveyor
Mars Orbiter Camera

Another strange Mars image - MARS Cookies?  

MORE STRANGE IMAGES http://www.soul-guidance.com/houseofthesun/strangestructures2.htm

MARS Anomalies

Water on MARS!

NASA - Mars
Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Home
Mars Exploration: Home
Center for Mars Exploration
Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Home
Mission to Mars
Mars Exploration: Home
Mars Exploration Timeline

MARS Images

MSSS Mars Image Directory
Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Home
Thermal Emission Spectrometer Project Homepage
NSSDC Photo Gallery: Mars
Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Home
NASA - Mars
The ALPO.Mars Section Observing Alert
THEMIS: Latest Images

MARS Rover

Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Home
Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Home
SPACE.com -- Mars Rover Special Report
BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Mars rover gets ready to roll
Mission to Mars
Mars Rover Mission Blog
Wired News: Mars Rover, Send Wheels on Over
CNN.com - New rover sees red planet with 3-D eyes - Jan. 5, 2004




Spirit Update:
Heading to 'Humphrey'
(Feb. 27, 5 pm PST)



Flight Director's Update
(Feb. 27, 2 pm PST)



Opportunity Update:
Biting Blueberry Hill
(Feb. 27, 10:30 am PST)



News release: Mars Sunset Clip Tells Dusty Tale
(Feb. 26, 3 pm PST)



More rover news and features

(updated Feb. 27, 5 pm PST)
+ All of today's images
+ Rover image archive
+ Rover wallpaper

Subject to change

Mar. 4, 10 am PST
+ Rover briefing

+ Mars24 -- Time on Mars
+ Rover mission animation
+ Challenges of Getting to Mars
+ NASA M2K4 (Flash)
+ Landing Sites (Flash)

+ Register for email news
+ NASA's rover page
+ JPL rover news page
+ NASA's Mars exploration site
+ Rover press kit

Planet Mars
The Nine Planets
The Planet Mars
Explore the planet Mars with realistic Mars habitats, rockets 
Welcome to the Planets
Welcome to the Planets: Mars
Planet MARS Home Page
USGS Astro - Mars - Browse the Solar System
The Planet Mars



The Nine Planets
Journey to Planet Earth | PBS
Discovery Channel :: Planet Earth Guide
Save Our Planet Earth
Earth and Moon Viewer

Earth Science

Center for International Earth Science Information Network
Macromedia Flash Detection
Earth Science Picture of the Day
Virtual Library: Earth Science
University of Calgary, Geology and Geophysics
Earth Science World - Gateway to the Geosciences
Yahoo! Directory Earth Sciences
For Kids Only - Earth Science Enterprise

MOON (Earth)

Atlas of the Moon http://www.astrosurf.com/cidadao/craters_section_02.htm

The Moon (ours) http://www.stargazing.net/david/moon/

Explore the Moon from Home http://www.lunar-reclamation.org/page2.htm

Hitchhiker's Guide to the Moon http://www.shallowsky.com/moon/index.html

Free Moonrise Program http://www.iserv.net/~bsidell/moonrise.htm

Moon Statistics  http://www.webels.com/birth_of_the_moon/moon_statistics.htm

Moon Phases - anytime http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/vphase.html

Astronomy For Kids
astronomyLINKS - solar system - moon - astronomy and space
The Moon - Zoom Astronomy
LunarPhase Pro - Moon Astronomy Software - Lunar Observer's
Moon Survey
[ More results from moon.astronomy.cz ]
AllRefer Encyclopedia - hunter's moon (Astronomy, General)s
AllRefer Encyclopedia - harvest moon (Astronomy, General)
APOD: November 8, 1999 - Lunation







The Planet Jupiter

Planet Jupiter pictures

The Planet Jupiter
StarChild: The planet Jupiter

StarChild: The planet Jupiter
The Planet Jupiter
The Planet Jupiter Photo Gallery
The Planets: Understanding Astrology - astrology.com



Saturn (planet) - Wikipedia



Target Name:


Is a satellite of:

Sol (our sun)




Cassini Orbiter


Imaging Science Subsystem - Narrow Angle

Product Size:

998 samples x 1023 lines

Produced By:


Primary Data Set:


Full-Res TIFF:

PIA05380.tif (408.2 kB)

Full-Res JPEG:

PIA05380.jpg (26.66 kB)

Courtesy JPL/NASA

Rings as seen by CASSINI - For high resolution click URL below: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA05421.jpg


The Planet Saturn
Welcome to the Planets: Saturn
The Nine Planets
The Planet Saturn
The Planet Saturn: General Features
The Planets: Understanding Astrology - astrology.com
The Sixth Planet from the Sun: Saturn
USGS Astro - Saturn - Browse the Solar System


Outter Planets

New Planets??  Sedna?

Sedna - an new planet? 

A planetoid - Sedna?

IAU naming


How to Use a Meade ETX Telescope


Weasner's Book Announcement!
Weasner's Mighty ETX Site
Telescopes: Meade Telescopes, Meade, Mead, Meade ETX, Mead ETX 
Meade Instruments Corporation - ETX-90EC and Autostar Frequently 
Scientific American Book Club
Can't Observe Using Meade ETX!! Help! - an Astronomy Net Meade 
Using the Meade Etx: 100 Objects You Can Really See With the
Using the Meade ETX - Find your book at a cheap price with Kelkoo
Meade ETX-70AT Astro Telescopes
Meade ETX-70



History of the Telescope

The Telescope
The history of the telescope and the binocular
KIE Evidence: The History of the Telescope
History of the Telescope - History of Binoculars
Planetarium.Net Telescope Buying Guide: Telescope History
History of the telescope - Pedro Ré's Astronomical CCD Imaging ...

Astronomy and astrophysics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Find out how you can help support Wikipedia's phenomenal growth.

Astronomy, which etymologically means laws of the stars, is the science whose subject is the observation and explanation of events outside Earth. Astrophysics is the part of astronomy (and physics) that deals with the application of physics to the phenomena observed by astronomy. Nearly all astronomers now have a strong background in physics, and the results of observations are usually put in an astrophysical context, so astronomy and astrophysics are used with very close meaning

Astronomy is one of the few sciences where amateurs still play an active role, especially in the discovery and monitoring of transient phenomena.

Astronomy is not to be confused with astrology, a pseudoscience which attempts to predict a person's destiny by tracking the paths of astronomical objects. Although the two fields share a common origin, they are quite different; astronomy embraces the scientific method, while astrology, with no basis in science, does not. 

Astronomy & Astrophysics
Oxford Astrophysics
AstroWeb: Astronomy/Astrophysics on the Internet
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
University of Chicago Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics

Divisions of astronomy

Given its huge scope, astronomy is divided into different branches. The divisions are not unique, however, and the intersections, as well as astronomers who work in several areas, are the rule more than the exception.

A first distinction is between theoretical and observational astronomy and astrophysics. Observers use a variety of means to obtain data about different phenomena, data that is then used by theorists to create and constrain theories and models, to explain observations and to predict new ones. Fields of study are also categorized in another two main ways: by subject, usually according to the region of space (e.g. Galactic astronomy) or problems addressed (such as star formation or cosmology); and according to the means of obtaining the data (e.g. optical astronomy or radioastronomy)

By subject

Many of the important subfields of astronomy have their own Wikipedia articles, such as the following:

See list of astronomical topics for a more exhaustive list of astronomy-related pages.

By way of obtaining information

In astronomy, the main way of obtaining information is through the detection and analysis of electromagnetic radiation, photons, but we also receive information from outside the earth carried by cosmic rays, neutrinos, and, in the near future, gravitational waves (see LIGO and LISA).

A traditional division of astronomy is given by the region of the electromagnetic spectrum observed:

  • Optical astronomy refers to the techniques used to detect and analyze light in and slightly around the wavelengths than can be detected with the eyes (about 400 - 800 nm). The most common tool is the telescope, with electronic imagers and spectrographs.

  • Infrared astronomy deals with using infrared radiation (wavelengths longer than the red light). Again, the most common tool is the telescope, but with instruments sensitive to longer wavelengths; the telescope itself can be optimized for infrared. Space telescopes are also used to eliminate noise ( electromagnetic interference) from the atmosphere.

  • Radio astronomy uses completely different instruments to detect radiation of wavelengths of mm to cm. The receivers are similar to those used in radio broadcast transmission (which uses those wavelengths of radiation). See also Radio telescopes.

  • High-energy astronomy

Optical and radio astronomy can be done using ground-based observatories, because the atmosphere is transparent at those wavelengths. Infrared light is heavily absorbed by water vapor, so infrared observatories have to be located in high, dry places or in space.

The atmosphere is opaque at the wavelengths used by X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, UV astronomy and, except for a few wavelength "windows", Far infrared astronomy , and so observations can be carried out only from balloons or space observatories.

Short history

In the early part of its history, astronomy involved only the observation and predictions of the motions of the objects in the sky that could be seen with the naked eye. The Rigveda refers to the 27 constellations associated with the motions of the sun and also the 12 zodiacal divisions of the sky. The ancient Greeks made many important contributions to astronomy, among them the definition of the magnitude system. The Bible contains a number of statements on the position of the earth in the universe, the nature of the stars and planets, and so forth, most of which are contradicted by modern astronomy; see Biblical cosmology. In 500 AD, Aryabhata presented a mathematical system that took the earth to spin on its axis and considered the motions of the planets with respect to the sun.

The study of astronomy almost stopped during the middle ages, except for the work of some Arabic astronomers. The renaissance came to astronomy with the work of Copernicus, who proposed a heliocentric model of the Solar System. His work was defended, expanded upon, and corrected by the likes of Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler. The latter of these was the first to provide a system which described correctly the details of the motion of the planets with the Sun at the center. However, Kepler did not understand the reasons behind the laws he wrote down. It was left to Newton's invention of celestial dynamics and his law of gravitation, the final explanation of the motions of the planets. Astrophysics was a later development, which only became possible once it was understood that the elements that made up the "celestial objects" were the same that made up the Earth, and that the same laws of physics applied.

Stars were found to be far away objects, and with the advent of spectroscopy it was proved that they were similar to our own sun, but with a wide range of temperatures, masses and sizes. The existence of our galaxy, the Milky Way, as a separate group of stars was only proven in the 20th century, along with the existence of "external" galaxies, and soon after, the expansion of the universe seen in the recession of most galaxies from us. Cosmology, a discipline that has a large intersection with astronomy, made huge advances during the 20th century, with the model of the hot big bang heavily supported by the evidence provided by astronomy and physics, such as the cosmic microwave background radiation, Hubble's Law and cosmological abundances of elements.

For a more detailed history of astronomy, see the history of astronomy.

See also:

Astronomy Tools




A Basic Primer on Astrophotography
Astrocruise by Philip Perkins 
Astronomy & Photography
Catching the Light by Jerry Lodriguss 
Chris Vedeler's Astrophotography Gallery
Chuck's Astrophotography
Comet and Sky Astrophotography
Galaxy Photography by Jason Ware
Stys Observatory Astrophotography
Multiple amateur CCD pages*
Al Kelly's CCD instruction guide*
An SCT site for beginners
Astrophotography by Jerry Lodriguss*
Robert Gendler's astro gallery
Telescope and CCD camera links*
Center for backyard astrophysics*
Latest bright supernovae
Webcam astro-imaging (Mac)
Long exposures with web cams*
Astrovid StellaCam EX*
Richard Jacobs' CCD images
Jim Burnell's galaxy clusters
Randy Brewers astronomy
Mark de Regt's images
High resolution imaging - Thierry Legault*
Web cam adapter
AVI editor*
Webcam high resolution imaging
Deep sky imaging
Astrophotography by Mario Cogo
Ed Grafton's CCD astronomy
Al Kelly's CCD astrophotography
Astrophotography by Michael R. Good
Dark sky photos of Mike Overacker
Gary Hatfield's page
Astronomical photography by Chris Coo

The Constellations
The Constellations and their Stars
Constellation Pronunciation Guide
Christine Kronberg's Constellation Pages
David Hayworth's Constellation Index 
The Dome of the Sky
Hawaiian Astronomical Society Constellation List
Marek Dudka's List of Constellations
Mythology of the Constellations
NASDA Constellations Page 

Peoria Astronomical Society Constellations Page
Sea and Sky's Pictures in the Sky 
SEDS Constellation Page
Sky Eye's Constellation Page
Tour the Constellations

Windows to the Universe - Constellations

Educational Resources
Lunar and Planetary Institute  http://www.lpi.usra.edu
National Science Teachers Association
Imagine the Universe

The Mars Millennium Project 
Teacher's Lab - A Private Universe Project 


Can't see Polaris from your observing site?  Need to align your telescope on an equatorial mount?  True North and magnetic North is not the same thing - except along the zero line in the map below.  Use a simple magnetic compass and adjust for true North by using the map below that tells you your magnetic deviation (from true North).  This will get you close enough to true North for visual observation.  Numbers left of the zero line are negative and to the right they are positive. 

For more accurate - up to date declination use the NOAA calculator at the link below:


Backyard Astronomy 
Jack Horkheimer's Stargazer
Mysteries of Deep Space 
Space Day by Lockheed Martin 
The Web Nebulae
TelRad charts for Messier Objects http://www.utahskies.org/deepsky/messier/charts/messierTelradFrameSet.html
or this site
Windows to the Universe 

Cleaning Optics

Cleaning mirrors lenses optics Telescopes Binoculars Refractors 
The Astronomy Connection - Cleaning Optics
Peoria Astronomical Society - Learning Topics-Cleaning Optics
Alachua Astronomy Club: Cleaning Optics with Collodion
Cleaning Solution for Optics -- MAPUG-Astronomy.net
Lake County Astronomical Society NightTimes

Light Pollution
Campaign for Dark Skies
EPA Green Lights Program
International Dark-Sky Association
Light Pollution in National Parks
New England Light Pollution Advisory Group
New Hampshire Citizens for Responsible Lighting
Office for the Protection of the Quality of the Sky
Ohio Light Pollution Advisory Council
Pennsylvania Outdoor Lighting Council
PHOTON (Please Help Ontario Turn On the Night)
World Wide Light Pollution Study

Messier Objects

CCD Images of Messier Objects
Chris Randall's Messier Drawings
Images of the Messier Objects
The Messier Marathon SEDS Messier Gallery

Messier Marathon Observer's Results

See the International Space Station form Your City!

Or. Try finding your city at the NASA site for times you can see ISS.
Click HERE for latest breaking Space Science news.
The Basics of Space Flight
ISS/Shuttle Paper Model you can build

NEW! STARMATT - Astrophotography Site  - GREAT Photos!!!


Where is the "Space Station"?  Note: Wait for Java applet to load. Press J-pass for chart of when you can see the station. 

Universe Today - Space news from around the Internet, updated every weekday.
NPR Science Friday  - National Public Radio www.npr.org Real Audio Weekly Show updated each Monday.

The Heavens Abovee - A GREATsite!!!!
The Messier Objectshttp://www.seds.org/billa/dssm/messier.html
Radio Amateur Satellites
SATELLITE TRACKING SOFTWARE- FREE - Orbitron - A FREE Satellite Tracking Program

Flatland : A Romance of Many Dimensions (Dover Thrift Editions) [UNABRIDGED]
by Edwin A. Abbott (Illustrator), Banesh Hoffmann (Introduction)

Our Price: $1.50

is one of the very few novels about math and philosophy that can appeal to almost any layperson. Published in 1880, this short fantasy takes us to a completely flat world of two physical dimensions where all the inhabitants are geometric shapes, and who think the planar world of length and width that they know is all there is. But one inhabitant discovers the existence of a third physical dimension, enabling him to finally grasp the concept of a fourth dimension. Watching our Flatland narrator, we begin to get an idea of the limitations of our own assumptions about reality, and we start to learn how to think about the confusing problem of higher dimensions. The book is also quite a funny satire on society and class distinctions of Victorian England.

The Strong Force; an Explanation - The Standard Model
Introduction of everyday forces and quarks, leptons, boson's, fundamental particles and other issues.
From Cornell University: Professors Sadoff, Hine.

Fourth Dimension
by Charles H. Hinton
Hardcover (June 1912)
Arno Pr; ISBN: 0405079532
Book Description
Contents: A Language of Space; Four dimensional space; Analogy of a plane world; Significance of a four-dimensional existence; First chapter in the history of four space; The higher world; Evidences for a fourth dimension; Use of four dimensions in thought; Application to Kant s theory of experience; A four-dimensional figure; Nomenclature & analogies; Simplest four-dimensional solid; Remarks on the figures; A recapitulation & extension of the physical argument.


NEW! NASA TV - Video Feed
NEW! More NASA Video Feeds
NASA-TV Schedules
NASA Spinoffs - Main Homepage.
NASA Spinoff Database - Online database of Earth bound uses of NASA space technology.
The NASA Homepage
NASA's Mars page
NASA's Space Shuttle page
NASA Spinoff Online
- Online version of the latest publication of "Spinoffs 98", "Spinoffs 97" and "Spinoffs 96".
NASA Tech Briefs
- Features exclusive reports of innovations developed by NASA and its industry partners/contractors that can be applied to develop new/improved products and solve engineering or manufacturing problems.
Go NASA - Want to show your support for the space program and NASA? Go here and sign the NASA Space Funding Support Letter!
- Main Homepage.
Johnson Space Center(JSC) - Launch control for America's human space flight missions.
Kennedy Space Center (KSC)
- Launching to Earth, Moon, Mars and beyond, America's gateway to the universe.
JPL - Jet Propulsion Laboratories Video:
Video Archives - Very Interesting Lectures!

HubbleSite to explore more cosmic discoveries.

Hubble's Deepest View Ever of the Universe Unveils Earliest Galaxies

Hubble Sees Galaxies Galore


View all images

Astronomers at the Space Telescope Science Institute today unveiled the deepest portrait of the visible universe ever achieved by humankind. Called the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), the million-second-long exposure reveals the first galaxies to emerge from the so-called "dark ages," the time shortly after the big bang when the first stars reheated the cold, dark universe. The new image should offer new insights into what types of objects reheated the universe long ago.

This historic new view is actually two separate images taken by Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Both images reveal galaxies that are too faint to be seen by ground-based telescopes, or even in Hubble's previous faraway looks, called the Hubble Deep Fields (HDFs), taken in 1995 and 1998.

Credit: NASA, ESA, S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team


Space Science News

MARS Mission Update
Chemistry & UFO's
Physics-The Universe
Chemistry of Jupiter
National Air and Space Museum - Smithsonian Institution Homepage for the National Air and Space Museum.
- Home of NASA's K-12 Internet Initiative. Bring the Internet into the classroom.
NASA Spacelink
- Tailored for students and teachers. Materials chosen for their educational value and relevance to the space program.
Space Transportation Programs (STP)
- Future reusable space transportation systems.
Space Station
- Homepage for the International Space Station.
Spaceflight Encyclopedia
- A very good historical reference. http://spacelist.org
Brian Roberts' Space Hotlist - OK , this one may give Clark S. Lindsey's Favorite Space Links a run for the money. It's large and comprehensive also.

Solar & Lunar Eclipses
Dale Ireland's Eclipse Page

Eclipse Cafe
Eclipse Chaser Home Page
Eric's Black Sun Eclipse Website
Fred Espenak's Eclipse Home Page
Live! Eclipse 

NASA Solar Eclipse Information
Upcoming Eclipses of the Sun and Moon

National Geologic Map Database
Thomas Bros. Maps
US Census Bureau's Tiger Mapping Service
Astronomy Cool Pictures Archive
Building an Icosahedron in the Classroom
Downloadable Software
Geometry Center: Triangle Tilings and Polyhedra
Geometry Formulas
Glossary of astronomical terms
Indentifying Plants and Flowers
Interactive Models of Platonic and Archimedean Solids
Interactive Triangle Tiling Maker
Introduction to Isometries
Introduction to Tilings
Kali: Symmetry group
Make your own Tetrapuzzle
Phases of the moon and planets
Retrograde Motion of planets
Sky Calendar, August 1998
Sky Calendar, December 1998
Sky Calendar, Index
Sky Calendar, July 1998
Sky Calendar, November 1998
Sky Calendar, October 1998
Sky Calendar, September 1998
Solar System Data
Tetrahedral Puzzles
The Orrery
The Platonic and Archimedean Solids
Make a Fractal

Earth Science - Geology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Find out how you can help support Wikipedia's phenomenal growth.

Earth science (also known as geoscience or the geosciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the Earth. It includes major disciplines such as geology, geophysics, meteorology, physical geography (as opposed to human geography), pedology, mineralogy, paleontology, sedimentology, hydrology, and geodesy. marine science and environmental science are highly interdisciplinary branches of Earth Science. Arguably, earth science can be regarded as a branch of planetary science.

Earth science uses physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology to build a quantitative understanding of the Earth. This gives scientists the ability to predict the future behavior of the system known as "Planet Earth".

Like all other scientists, earth scientists apply the scientific method: formulate hypotheses after observation of and gathering data about natural phenomena and then test those hypotheses. In earth science, data usually plays a critical role in testing and formulating hypotheses. Each discipline of earth science has major paradigms that form the basis of that specific field of study.

Partial list of the major Earth Science topics

Cycles of the Earth and Atmosphere


Science of Minerals
Grade 4 Science: Earth and Space Science: Rocks, Minerals and
Earth Science Activities - Minerals - Tasa Graphic Arts, Inces
Rocks, Minerals, Fossils and Earth Science Supplies
The Science Spot: Rocks & Minerals
Food Science Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs
Children's Science Library -- Minerals & Metals :: Pustak Mahal
Earth Science 2: Minerals (chapter 1)
Mineral & Gemstone Kingdom
Physical Geology Lecture Notes
TerraServer: Aerial Imagery

Geology - Science

Geology - Science
Geology Science Fair Project Ideas
Geology Science Fair Projects
American Geological Institute - Serving the Geosciences Since 1948
Central Region Geology - Science Day Photos
MCC Geology / Science News
Geology 101 Lecture - Intro, Geology, Science, Plate Tectonics
geology - earth science - Explore Geology through geology science

Geology.com: Earth Science on the Web
About Geology -- The Complete Guide to Earth Science
Geology Discipline Home Page
Geology Entrance
Yahoo! Directory Earth Sciences > Geology and GeophysicsGeology Link Page
Geological Society of America - Geology Archive
Environmental Geology
The Journal of Geology

Geology Labs On-Line Virtual Earthquake, Virtual Dating (Isochron and Radiocarbon), and coming soon, Virtual Coast, Groundwater, Landslide, Plate Techtronics, River and Volcano!

Mt. St. Helens VolcanoCam static image updated every 5 minutes...

Paleomap illustrates plate tectonic development of the ocean basins and continents, and changing distribution of land and sea during the past 1100 million years...


Science of the Comstock explore the famous ore deposit of silver and gold in the Virginia Range of Storey County, Nevada, including tour, physics, chemistry, earth science, environment, even scams!


The Virtual Cave browse the mineral wonders of the cave environment


Chapter 1: Introduction to Physical Geography
The Eighteen National Geography Standards
Physical Geography Links
Physical Geography
The Greenhouse Effect, Solar Radiation Tutorial, Physical
How the Sun Heats the Earth, Solar Radiation Tutorial, Physical
tgp - Online Tutorial - What are the different types of weathering?
Geography Classroom: Physical Geography
Quiz: Gabler, Essentials of Physical Geography 7e, Ch 1
Product Page - 8:32am
Online Learning - Physical Geography - Landscape Appreciation Part
Online Learning - Physical Geography - Landscape Appreciation Part
UTML - Selected Web Sites - Geography
Module Catalogue - Physical Geography
[PDF] physical geography
Faculty Handbook Online 2005/06 : Module Description - Durham 
DLESE Find a Resource > Subject: Physical geography
Geography Handbook 2002/3
PSIgate - Physical Sciences Information Gateway: Search/Browse Results
MWF Physical Geography Syllabus
UWA - Undergraduate Courses - Geography and Earth Sciences
GEES: Taught Courses
QMUL > Department of Geography > Undergraduate > Study >
[PDF] Syllabus for GEOG 110: Physical Geography Lecture
IVLE / Modules Online
[PDF] Syllabus for GEOG 111: Physical Geography Laboratory
Remote Sensing Tutorial Page 6-1
Google Directory - Science > Social Sciences > Geography
UWA - Undergraduate Courses - Geography and Earth Sciences
DLESE Find a Resource > Subject: Physical geography
Cloud Tutorial
[PDF] Geography 05.indd
University of Exeter - Undergraduate Prospectus 2006 - Geography
Queens' College Cambridge - Geography


Meteorology Guide: the online guides
Weather Tutorial Page 1 - Introduction
ECN Weather and Climate Change Tutorials
WeatherTAP.com: Real-time radar, satellite imagery, lightning
Introduction to the Weather
The Sun-Earth Connection
The Lion Roars
National Weather Service - Warning Decision Training Branch
Weather Tutorial | Lecture 1
weather tutorialAVSIM
 Aviation Simulation Weather: Clouds, Fog and Low Visibility
Severe Storms: online meteorology guide
Weather Tutorial - Utah Education Network
Penn State Meteo 297 (201): Tutorials(Map Skills)

Earth and Space Science

Aerospace technology
Cosmology (origin of the universe)
Energy sources
Natural disasters
Plate tectonics
Rock cycle
Solar system
Space exploration
Water cycle

Chemical Scorecard
Environmental Health Center
Environmental Literacy
Environmental Protection Agency
Exploring the Environment
GrassRoots Recycling Network
National Wildlife Federation
Ecology Tutorial
[PDF] The Correlation of
Science Animations
Biology Tutorials
Online Learning - Basics of Ecology - Tutorial, Course and CEU
Ecology/Environmental Science Subject Guide
Zoology & Entomology - Courses

Atmospheric Encyclopedia
Types of Clouds
Weather Channel
Weather Photography
Weather Underground

Natural Science

American Museum of Natural History Exhibitions exhibitions vary, currently frogs, butterflies, meteorites, art in nature, and more...

Cascades Volcano Observatory Photo Archives

Cosmic Classroom See the world and our Universe in a different light... ultrared!

Critter Cams Live cameras all over the world, on sharks, pandas, alligators, and more!

The Electronic Zoo tons of animal resources (some links are outdated, but still full of great stuff!)

Encyclopedia Smithsonian Frequently Asked Questions from Amphibians to Zoology...

Evolution evolutionary theory, illustrations, and activities for kids, written by a 7th grader!

Franklin Institute Online: Educational Hotlist from Art to Math to Music to Science and more...

Kids' Castle by Smithsonian Magazine, From history to worldwide to air and space to science and beyond, plus something new every day!

Magic School Bus great science for kids

MicroAngela Electron microscope image gallery, including cells, insects, plankton, and more!

News @ Nature The best in science journalism...

Ocean.com Think Deep! From Poseidon to Marine Conservation and beyond...

Ocean Explorer learn about, discover, and virtually explore the ocean realm

Ocean Facts & Statistics 362,000,000 km2 or 71% of the surface of the globe is water...

On-Line Expeditions Virtual expeditions...
    Extreme 2003: To the Depths of Discovery
    Canadian Archipelago Throughflow Study
    A Black Sea Journey
    Extreme 2002: Mission to the Abyss
    Extreme 2001: A Deep-Sea Odyssey
    Extreme 2000: Voyage to the Deep

ONR Science & Technology Focus Oceanography, Space Sciences, and more...

Our Earth as Art images of the earth, taken by the Landsat-7 and ASTER

Powers of Ten Recommended View the Milky Way at 10 million light years from the Earth. Then move through space towards the Earth in successive orders of magnitude until you reach a tall oak tree, then move from the actual size of a leaf into a microscopic world that reveals leaf cell walls, the cell nucleus, chromatin, DNA and finally, into the subatomic universe of electrons and protons... (requires Java)

Science in the Rainforest take a walk in a rainforest, discuss issues related to rainforest ecology, and more...

Science Knows No Boundaries agricultural scientists often travel to far-away countries to gain knowledge...

SeaWorld Animal Information Database marine mammal resources, and more

Snow Crystals snow crystal growth is a fascinating and poorly understood process, in which remarkably complex and beautifully symmetric structures appear, quite literally, out of thin air

StudyWorks! Online Explorations From Global Warming to Humidity to Predators and more... tons of Explorations in science and math and...

Tiger Information Center

Virtual Frog Dissection Kit interactively dissect a (digitized) frog named Fluffy...

Visible Earth searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the earth...

Volcanoes Online Plate tectonics, database of volcanoes, games and more

Ugly Bug New Hampshire contest (check the Arizona or Oklahoma links, too!), plus great stuff from the 2001 contest...

Yellowstone National Park Click on 'Visiting Online' for virtual tours of the world’s first national park



Windows to the Universe

Welcome to Windows to the Universe! Our purpose is to develop a fun and different Web site about the Earth and Space sciences. Windows to the Universe is graphics intensive!

Principles of Astronomy

This entire website, all 56 pages and 327 images, are available as a complete self-paced, self-learning astronomy course.


Astronomy is the science dealing with all the celestial objects in the universe, including the planets and their satellites (e.g. our Earth and the moon), comets and meteors, the stars (including our sun), and interstellar matter, the star systems known as galaxies, and clusters of galaxies.


Cosmology: The Universe

Scientific study of the universe, especially its large-scale structure, origin, and evolution.

Space Exploration

Space Exploration is the science and engineering of spacecraft and space probes used for investigation of physical conditions in space and in celestial bodies - e.g. stars, planets and their moons.

Remote Sensing Tutorial

A training manual for learning the role of space science and technology for using remote sensing to monitor planetary bodies and distant stars and galaxies.

Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere
A non-mathematical overview of research of the magnetic environment of Earth in space, in about 70 units. Illustrated, with Spanish translation, glossary, timeline, Q&A from users, teacher guide, history article and more. It follows a historical thread, stresses intuitive understanding and includes topics of modern physics needed for understanding the subject. High-school to undergraduate level.


Educational Poster on Water Pollution

This 17" x 11" poster explains where our drinking water comes from, potential threats to the safety of our water, and what is being done to protect it.


Exploring the Environment by Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA

The vision of the ETE online series is to promote science-literate and reflective students who are knowledgeable of the earth's processes and their responsibilities for stewardship.


Sunlight and the Earth
A short overview of how sunlight creates our weather and climate, continued in linked file "Weather and the Atmosphere." Greenhouse effect, radiative balance, convection on a global scale and in thunderstorms, and more.


What Forces Effect Our Weather

Join us as we explore the forces behind the weather. Try your hand at tornado chasing or discover how wind chill works. Begin by taking a look at what protects Earth from the forbidding climate of outer space in "The Atmosphere."