| Amateur Radio | Amazon.com |Biology | Books | Chemistry | Data Sheets | Electronics | Math | Microscope | NASA-TV | | Photography | Physics | Radio Astronomy | Robots | Science News | Space-Astronomy | Transistors | Search This Site |

Digital Signal Processing (DSP)

DSP a crash course.

Digital signal processing is still a new technology and is rapidly developing.  Basically DSP is the representation of a signal by a sequence of numbers.  The numbers can then be manipulated or changed by a computing process to change or extract information from the original signal.  Often this includes the extraction of noise for example.  Bandpass shaping is another possible change that could be made.  In fact using DSP we can even originate or create a signal from numbers in sort of a reverse process.  One advantage of this is that there is no requirement for tuning as the signal is now just a sequence of numbers in the computer.  This makes DSP a very stable and flexible way of dealing with electronic signals.  Simple to sophisticated software is used to manipulate the numbers representing the original signal.  New communications radios are now appearing on the market with DSP intermediate frequency processing making possible a multitude of IF filtering characteristics.

The following is a simple three step example of one possible use of DSP.  It is an over simplification to be sure but the basic principles are what we are looking for at this point.

1. A/D Conversion.  An input signal is first passed through a low pass filter and then digitized with an analog to digital converter.  This is called sampling.  Tiny separate samples are taken of the input analog signal and represented at that moment by a digital value.  The higher the sampling rate (up to a point) the better we can reconstruct the original signal.  However a sampling rate too high complicates our hardware, causes problems and isn't a good design practice.  A compromise is always in order.  So, what do we do with this digital signal that represents our original analog signal?

2.  Signal Processing.  Processing of the digital signal out of the A/D converter basically often consists of addition, multiplication, and delay.  Addition and multiplication are very familiar terms and computers are very efficient at handling those operations.  Delay refers to the ability of the processor to cause phase shifts, or comparisons of different parts of the signal and causing a change to take place in the output signal such as eliminating heterodynes of a particular frequency or wave shaping the signal.  Here the process can and often does involve complicated higher order mathematics such as Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT).  This is a mathematical technique to determine the content of a signal mathematically.  Other mathematical methods include the Inverse DFT (IDFT), the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the Z-transform.  All of these mathematical tools are used to manipulate our digital signal in special ways to produce the desired result.  For example we may want to eliminate any specific impulse signals that may happen to come along, for example static crashes.  We can also develop a variety of filters.  One of these is called a finite impulse filter (FIR) or transversal filter.  We are now too far into the process to go any farter and still keep it basic and simple.  But at least you now have an idea of what is involved and know that the mathematical manipulation of a signal can get quite complicate and intricate.  Programming of the DSP hardware requires a knowledge of higher mathematics and a knowledge of the DSP processor and the programming language it uses.  Given all that knowledge we can do amazing things to the digital signal.  That is the exciting power of DSP.

3.  D/A conversion.  The digital signal is now converted back to an analog signal complete with all the mathematically processed elements.  It will not look like the original and that is the whole point we wanted to accomplish.  We can use DSP to change a signal based upon our mathematically controlled manipulation.

How do you learn DSP?  http://www.redcedar.com/learndsp.htm

A complete book on DSP free online. http://www.dspguide.com/pdfbook.htm
The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing
By Steven W. Smith, Ph.D.

 Chapter 1 - The Breadth and Depth of DSP Chapter 2 - Statistics, Probability and Noise Chapter 3 - ADC and DAC Chapter 4 - DSP Software

## COMPLEX TECHNIQUES

The following WWW links will take you directly to the various web site pages.  Your browser URL address line will tell you the origin of the site. The links are to BERKELEY DESIGN TECHNOLOGY, INC. AND THE INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS. http://www.bdti.com

### 0. What is comp.dsp?

0.2 Versions of the comp.dsp FAQ
0.3 DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
0.4 Redistribution permission
0.5 Note on the list of manufacturers, addresses, and telephone numbers

### 1. General DSP

1.1 DSP book and article references
1.1.1 Bibles of DSP theory
1.1.3 Array signal processing
1.1.4 Windowing articles
1.1.5 Digital audio effects processing
1.1.6 Digital signal processing implementation
1.2 DSP training
1.2.1 Courses on DSP
1.2.2 On-line courses on DSP
1.3.1 DSP packages for MATLAB
1.3.2 DSP packages for Mathematica
1.3.3 Other DSP libraries
1.3.4 DSP software
1.3.5 Text to Speech Conversion Software
1.3.6 Filter design software

### 2. Algorithms and standards

2.1 Where can I get public domain algorithms for DSP?
2.2 What are CELP and LPC? Where can I get source for them?
2.3 What is ADPCM? Where can I get source for it?
2.4 What is GSM? Where can I get source for it?
2.5 How does pitch perception work, and how do I implement it?
2.6 What standards exist for digital audio? What is AES/EBU? What is S/PDIF?
2.6.1 Where can I get copies of ITU (formerly CCITT) standards?
2.6.2 What standards are there for digital audio?
2.7 What is mu-law encoding? Where can I get source for it?
2.8 How can I do CD DAT sample rate conversion?
2.9 What are wavelets?
2.9.2 What are some good books and papers on wavelets?
2.9.3 Where can I get some software for wavelets?
2.10 How do I calculate the coefficients for a Hilbert transformer?
2.11 Algorithm implementation: floating-point versus fixed-point

### 3. Programmable DSP chips and their software

3.1 What are the available DSP chips and chip architectures?
3.2 What is the difference between a DSP and a microprocessor?
3.3 Software for Analog Devices DSPs
3.3.1 Where can I get an assembler for the ADSP-2105?
3.3.2 Where can I get algorithms or libraries for Analog Devices DSPs?
3.4 Software for Lucent Technologies (Formerly AT&T) DSPs
3.5 Software for Motorola DSPs
3.5.1 Where can I get a free assembler for the Motorola DSP56000?
3.5.2 Where can I get a free C compiler for the Motorola DSP56000?
3.5.3 Where can I get a disassembler for the Motorola DSP56000?
3.5.4 Where can I get algorithms and libraries for Motorola DSPs?
3.5.5 Where can I get NeXT-compatible Motorola DSP56001 code?
3.5.6 Where can I get emulators for the 68HC11 (6811) processor?
3.6 Software for Texas Instruments DSPs
3.6.1 Where can I get free algorithms or libraries for TI DSPs?
3.6.2 Where can I get free development tools for TI DSPs?
3.6.3 Where can I get a free C compiler for the TI TMS320C3x/4x?
3.6.4 Where can I get a free assembler for the TI TMS320C3x/4x?
3.6.5 Where can I get a free simulator for the TI TMS320C3x/4x?
3.6.6 What is Tick? Where can I get it?

### 5. Operating Systems

People involved...

NEWS FLASH:  June 14. 2000

Today, Texas Instruments introduces the first device in its next
generation TMS320C5000 DSP platform. Created to drive the next
generation of digital applications ranging from Internet appliances
to high-speed wireless, the new TMS320C5510 DSP is the first device
of the most power-efficient DSP generation. With a road map to
one-sixth the power and five times the performance of today's
TMS320C54x(tm) DSPs, the C5510 DSP is sampling now at 80 mW at 320
MIPS.

And to get you started today, TI not only offers proven DSP
technology with assured platform code compatibility, but the
support of eXpressDSP(tm) Real-Time Software Technology, the
largest network of third parties and software developers, and an
extensive array of compatible data converter and power management
devices. And to help you get to market faster, TI has a host of
technical documentation and training available today.

Just three months after announcing its revolutionary TMS320C55x DSP
core, TI is delivering on the promise by building on the legacy of
low-power consumption and high performance of the TMS320C54x DSP
generation. And since its software compatible with the existing
guaranteed roadmap to ultra low power.

Visit http://www.ti.com/sc/tolc5510 to view the datasheet and to
get more details about the C5510 DSP.

Features of the C5510 DSP include:
* New ultra power-efficient TMS320C55x Core
* 80 mW @ 320 MIPS
* 160 kW on-chip SRAM
* 16 kW on-chip ROM
* Three McBSPs supporting 128 channels each
* Six channel DMA controller
* 16-bit EHPI
* 24 kB Instruction Cache
* 32-bit EMIF
* Two 16-bit timers with 4-bit prescaler
* Software compatible with existing C54x(tm) DSP generation
* Sampling today
Talk to the TI technology experts in a live webcast

On June 28, TI will host a live Technical Webcast to present
detailed technical information and benchmarks from TI's C55x DSP
technologists and TI's C5000 Catalog DSP Product Line Manager.
After you hear all of the details, then it's your turn to ask the
questions of our experts during the live Q&A session. Go to
http://www.ti.com/sc/tolc5510 to view the agenda and times to view

Thank you,
Texas Instruments

The Band-Select FIR Filter Design Page

The Specialty FIR Filter Design Page

The Band-Select IIR Filter Design Page

http://www.circuitsage.com/filter.html

1.   Digital filter design applets by Jeffrey Taft; 38 cool free digital filter design applets plus tutorials.
2.  Digital filter design applets by University of Westminister.
3.  Digital filter design by MIT.
4.  Digital filter design applets by dsptutor.com.
5.  Digital filter design applet by Rune Langoy.
6.  Digital filter design applet by Ga Tech.
7.  Online Butterworth filter design tool by Besser Associates.
8.  The active filter wizard from Chip Center.
9.  Rfcafe's filter design tools.
10. Max Froding's Butterworth and Elliptic filter applets.
11.  Chip center's online filter calculator.
12. 3-pole butterworth bandpass filter calculator, by GBPPR.
14. Active filter designer.
15. LC Filter Designer.
16. Raltron's Pi LC bandpass filter calculator.
17. Guided Wave Technology's online waveguide filter designer.
18. Neat java routine for plotting 2nd order filter transfer functions.
19. Active filter designer  (mirror) and HF filter design by John Owens.

Filter Design Articles

1.  Polyphase Two-Path Filter Designer in Java:  Calculates floating-point coefficients of the two-path polyphase structure.
2.  Michael Ellis' webpage:  Includes a lot of detailed information on filters.
3. University of Oulo paper on CMOS Gm/C filters.
4.  Tony Fisher's LC filter designer, an online tool for filter analysis.
5.  A low sensitivity lowpass filter design tutorial by Kumen Blake.
6.  Design of a 5th order butterworth Sallen-Key filter.
8.  A simple filter webpage with tooo much advertising.
9.  Elliptical filter design by Cellestino Corral.
10. Analysis of the Sallen-Key filter by TI.
11.  Filters for digital communication by TI.
12.  Ian Purdie's notes on filter design.
13.  Elliptical filter design by Celestino A. Corral.
15.  Elliptical filter design by Philip Geffe.
16. Microwave filters lecture at Queens university.
17. NEC Research Index. Many articles on filter design.
18. ESSCIRC website.  Many articles on filter design. Very good.
19. 1500 watt filter.  Don't stand too close.
20.AARL's RF filter design website.
21. National's application notes 779: Introduction to Filters. 26: High speed active filters, 27: low sensitivity lowpass filter, 28: low-sensitivity bandpass filter, 29: low sensitivity highpass filter. 21: Predistortion for Sallen-Key filters.
22. Swarthmore article on active filters.
23. Maxim filter application notes.
24. FDI article on filter design.
25. RF Cafe article on filter transfer functions.
26. TI's filter wizard, for designing filters. and active filter application notes:
27. Ernie Kim's notes on microwave filter design.
28. Stanford class notes on microstrip filters.
30. Many class projects on filter design at Berkeley.

Books on Filter Design

1.  Microwave Transmission Line Filters, J A G. Malherbe; 1979
2.
Tables for Active FIlter Design, Mario Biey; 1985
3.  Electronic Filter Analysis and Synthesis, Michael G. Ellis; 1994
4.  Generalized Filter Design by Computer Optimization, Djuradj Budimir; 1998
5.  Lancaster's Active Filter Cookbook Don Lancaster
6.  Design of Analog Filters Rolf Schaumann et al.
7.  Passive and Active Filters : Theory and Implementations, Wai-Kai Chen
8.  Filter Design - By Steve Winder
9.  Mathematics for Circuits and Filters, Wai-Kai Chen, isbn0849300525.\$70.

1.  bpfloss.mcd:  by Michael A. Earle, transmission and reflection properties of LC filters.
2.  butter.zip:  Low, high, and bandpass Butterworth filter simulator.
3.  filter6.mcd:  by D Weisner, a not-very-helpful delay-line analysis.
4.  hpfilter:  by Roald C. Maximo, an LC Tchebyshev Highpass Filter designer.
5.  lpfilter.mcd:  by Roald C. Maximo, an LC Tchebyshev Lowpass Filter designer.
6.  lpfsynth.mcd:  by Roald C. Maximo, a more detailed LC Tchebyshev Lowpass Filter designer.
7.  shnt-bpf.mcd, by Roald C. Maximo, Series Coupled Shunt Resonators Passive Bandpass Filters.
8.  ser-bpf.mcd, by Roald C. Maximo, Shunt Coupled Series Resonators Passive Band-pass Filters.
9.   synthact.mcd, by Roald C. Maximo, Synthesis of Active Filters.
10.  Lance Lascari's edge-coupled bandpass filter designer in Mathcad.
11.  Bill's active filter page.
12. FilterD, by Jacek Izydorczyk, zipped mathcad worksheets for filter design.
13. James Kang's mathcad filter routine.  Check out all of his mathcad and matlab routines.  Lot's of analog and digital filter routines.
14.  Benhard Boser's filter design routines in Mathcad.  This link also has a series of good lectures on analog circuit design.
15.  Robert Hargar's Analog and Digital Communication Systems, a Mathcad book with lots of information on digital filter design and DSP.
16.  Group delay for Butterworth BPF group_b.mcd, by Dave Peterson
17.  A handy circuit for filter design unfltr6.mcd, by John Ellis
18.  Corrugated microwave filter design corrfilt.mcd, by Rousslan Goulouev
19.  Mathworks filter design routine's for MATLAB.
21.  Mathcad Tutorial, a good tutorial by Sidney Young and Theresa Julia Zielinski.
22.  Valery Ochkov's Book on Mathcad usage.
23.  Information on Mathcad from Mathsoft.
24.  James Kang's filter.mcd file.  Extensive, but difficult to read.
25. Roald Maximo's synthact.mcd, an example active filter design.
25.  Mathsoft's EE Handbook.  Some basic filter design formulae.
25.  Circuit Sage's sallenkey.mcd and pdf version.  An extensive Mathcad 2001i routine for designing integrated Sallen-Key filters.
26.  Circuit Sage's butter.mcd (pdf), ellip.mcd (pdf), and cheby.mcd (pdf) LC filter design routines.

Filter Design Software

1.   S/FilSyn (PCFilt) from ALK Engineering: This PC demo version only works at one frequency, 833MHz (frequency translation is easy to do by hand, so the demo can easily be used for any design with a little thought!).
2.   Filtroid from GigaSim: \$995.
3.   MicroSim Filter Designer Software: This PC demo version only allows up to third order filters to be designed. It has a great user interface. The full version is \$750.
4.   Burr_Brown Filter Designer Software: A good simple filter designer for any order filter...and it's FREE!
5.   Interactive Filter Design Software: CGI script that finds filter poles and zeros and transfer function. Very similar to MATLAB's filter design routines (more analysis than synthesis).
6.   filtorX: A simple filter design tool. I see no advantage over MATLAB. You also have to mail in an agreement to use it (too much work).
7.   FilterMaster: A full working demo of Intusoft's filter design software. This isn't the real program, but a great demo:\$2225, \$335/year maintenance.
8.   Momentum digital filter design software.
9.   PCFilter,  Active filter synthesis from Michael Ellis, \$325, includes his book on filter synthesis.
10.  University of Illinois Filter Synthesis Class.  Some MATLAB routines for filter synthesis.
11.   Max Froding's Butterworth Filter Synthesizer.  Design 2 to 25 element Butterworth lowpass and highpass filters from your internet browser.
12.  MIMICAD Filter Synthesis.  A Commercial Filter Synthesis Tool.  This webpage isn't very good.
13.  FILTER - A free program for automatic synthesis of analog filters, by Bogdan Wilamowski
14.  LADDER (by Bogdan Wilamowski & Rob Koller) - A free program for synthesis of passive ladder prototype for analog and digital filter designs.
15.  Serenade, Ansoft's Filter Synthesis Routine.  I think it's cheap for universities.
16.  superFILTER, Tatum Lab's Filter Design Software.  Both digital and analog. Standard is \$795 and Pro is \$1995.  It has a good simple demo.  It's good, but it looks like it's topologies are limited.
17.  FilterWiz, Standard is \$89 (students-\$38), Pro is \$199(students-\$84),  A good cheap program with a good interface, but it's topologies are limited to biquads, which are more sensitive to process variations.
18.  FaiSyn, A simple very-inexpensive filter design tool.  It has limited capabilities, but it does the job for the right price:  Corportate is \$89, single-user \$35.
19.  Adore, A module(op-amps, switches, capacitors) generator for switched capacitor filters from Berkeley.Adore. \$150 for distribution costs.
20.  Eagleware's FILTER.  \$699 Eagleware has a complete suite of filter design tools including active and transmission line based tools, but charges another \$699-\$999 for each product.
21.  AADE Filter Design V 2.0, Looks nice, very inexpensive. \$24.95.
22.  Filter, Passive filter synthesis from Michael Ellis:  Good, free DOS program.
23.  Filter from Sherlab.  Free DOS routine.
24.  Wavecon Filter Designer, RF coupled line and tline filters.  Demo available.
25.  Filtershop,Analog and digital filter design software: \$1500.
26.  AADE Filter Design, coupled resonator, crystal and LC filters, \$24.95
27.  IGOR digital filter design from Wave Metrics. \$500.
28.  Quickfil,  active, passive and digital filter design. \$2200.
29.  Tunekit 2.0 by Max Froding.
30.  Adlab, by Stephan Weber is a nice collection of circuit tools and has a nice user interface. \$109.
31.  Solorb's 2 pole bandpass filter calculator. Free, but very limited.
32.  Filter3, A Free DOS routine by Jordan Strundjev for designing Chebyshev and Butterworth Filters.
33. Omicron's filter design tool, QuickFil, \$2200.
34. Linear's FilterCAD, filter design tool.  Free, but geared toward Linear IC's.
35. Arden Tech's Eclipse5 filter designer. \$695.
36. RFShop's filter design spreadsheets and articles. Free.
37. eSeptum, a waveguide filter designer from engineers.com. \$895.
38. Filter Workshop and Active Filter Workshop by Frank Ostrander. \$80 each.
39. FNC-Elcad, a multi-purpose circuit design tool with some active filters. \$39.95
40. Filter Solutions, free trial, \$50-\$1400 (depending on features)
41. Filtech, from numberone systems, \$350.
42. Filtersyn(microstrip) and Cocafil(waveguide) filter design from Zelan.
43. TDS's collection of filter routines. \$38.
44.  Elsie, a filter design routine by Jim Tonne, \$275, student version is free.  He also has Helical, a helical-resonator-based bandpass filter designer.
45. EPFIL, Waveguide filter design, by Djuradj Budimir, \$279.
46. BASIC program to design Butterworth filters.
47. Thom Cuthbert's numerous BASIC programs for designing filters and matching networks. \$10.

OTHER LATE BREAKING SEMICONDUCTOR NEWS

Recommended books on DSP

Understanding Digital Signal Processing
by Richard G. Lyons

Availability: Usually ships within 24 hours.

Hardcover (October 1996)
Addison-Wesley Pub Co; ISBN: 0201634678 ; Dimensions (in inches): 1.24 x 9.54 x 6.48
Avg. Customer Review:

 Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms and Applications by John G. Proakis, Dimitris G. Manolakis Availability: Usually ships within 24 hours. Hardcover - 1016 pages 3 edition (October 5, 1995) Prentice Hall; ISBN: 0133737624 ; Dimensions (in inches): 1.70 x 9.52 x 7.28 Avg. Customer Review:
Schaum's Outline of Digital Signal Processing (Schaum's)
by Monson H. Hayes

Availability: Usually ships within 24 hours.
Paperback - 432 pages (October 8, 1998)
McGraw-Hill; ISBN: 0070273898 ; Dimensions (in inches): 0.82 x 10.90 x 8.17
Avg. Customer Review: