LAWS OF EXPONENTS - To multiply powers of the same base, add their
22 times 23 = 25
PROOF: 22 = 4;
23 = 8;
4 x 8
To divide powers of the same base,
subtract the exponent of the divisor from the exponent of the dividend.
(The dividend is on top / divisor is on the bottom)
/ 33 = 32
PROOF: 35 = 243;
(Note: The above statement
corrected 03/13/00 by the sharp eye and compliments of Jason Rana, Ouachita
Baptist University. We appreciate anyone who brings errors to our
attention so we may correct them.)
These should be memorized!
(-a)n = an, if n is even
(-a)n = -an, if n is odd
am * an = am+n
an / am = an-m
(ab)n = anbn
(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab +
(a - b)2 = a2 - 2ab +
(a + b)(a - b) = a2 - b2
(a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b +
Handbook of Statistics
Textbook explains statistics http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/index.html
Tutorials - online
Statistics Book http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/stathome.html
to Regression Analysis
Introduction to Regression Analysis
analysis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
linear and multiple regression
765: Multiple Regression
and Regression Analysis
Global Perspective Program - Handbook for IQP Advisors and
- scientific graphing, curve fitting, data analysis
Procurement and Acquisition Policy - Contract Pricing
Cost Estimating Handbook - Regression Analysis
WEB PAGES THAT PERFORM
University Statistics and Math Center
and Statistical Physics
Statistical Data Resources
and Statistical Data Center University of Virginia
Center for National Health Statistics
Top 100 Applied Statistics Books for SaleMathematical
Statistics and Data Analysis
Statistics and Data Analysis
and Statistics - 101science.com - WWW Links page.
Statistics Links to TI-83 Programs you
can download to your calculator:
http://www.iserv.net/~gopat/ (General Statistics)
Statistics - CBL
Finding Mean and Standard Deviation with the TI-83
Mean and standard
deviation on the TI-83
the TI-83 to Find the Sample Mean and Sample Standard ...
Instructions - Hypothesis Testing with one mean
TI 83 Instructions - Confidence Intervals for mean (small
Plus: Confidence Interval for One-Sample Mean with s ...
Plus: Hypothesis Testing for Two-Sample Mean with s ...
Mean and Standard Deviation for a Sample with TI-83 Normal
probabilities on the TI-83
Adolphe Quetelet (1796 - 1874)
more progress physical sciences make, the more they tend to enter the domain of
mathematics, which is a kind of center to which they all converge. We may even
judge the degree of perfection to which a science has arrived by the facility
with which it may be submitted to calculation."
Quoted in E Mailly, Eulogy on Quetelet 1874
Adolphe Quetelet received his first doctorate in 1819
from Ghent for a dissertation on the theory of conic
sections. After receiving this doctorate he taught mathematics in
Brussels, then, in 1823, he went to Paris to study astronomy at the Observatory
there. He learnt astronomy from Arago
and Bouvard and the theory
of probability under Joseph Fourier
and Pierre Laplace.
Influenced by Laplace
Quetelet was the first to use the normal curve other than as an error law. His
studies of the numerical consistency of crimes stimulated wide discussion of
free will versus social determinism. For his government he collected and
analysed statistics on crime, mortality etc. and devised improvements in census
taking. His work produced great controversy among social scientists of the 19th
At an observatory in Brussels that he established in 1833 at
the request of the Belgian government, he worked on statistical, geophysical,
and meteorological data, studied meteor showers and established methods for the
comparison and evaluation of the data.
Article by: J J O'Connor and E F
From Wikipedia, the free
Find out how you can help support
Wikipedia's phenomenal growth.
Statistics is a branch of applied mathematics
which includes the planning, summarizing, and interpreting of uncertain
observations. Because the aim of statistics is to produce the "best"
information from available data, some authors make statistics a branch of decision
theory. As a model of randomness or ignorance, probability
theory plays a critical role in the development of statistical
The word statistics comes from the modern Latin
phrase statisticum collegium (lecture about state affairs), from which came
word statista, which means "statesman" or "politician"
(compare to status)
and the German
Statistik, originally designating the analysis of data about the state. It
acquired the meaning of the collection and classification of data generally in
the early nineteenth century.
We describe our knowledge (and ignorance)
mathematically and attempt to learn more from whatever we can observe. This
requires us to
our observations to control their variability (experiment
a collection of observations to feature their commonality by
suppressing details (descriptive
- reach consensus about what the
observations tell us about the world we observe (statistical
In some forms of descriptive statistics,
mining, the second and third of these steps become so prominent that the
first step (planning) appears to become less important. In these disciplines,
data often are collected outside the control of the person doing the analysis,
and the result of the analysis may be more an operational model than a
consensus report about the world.
The probability of an event is often defined
as a number between one and zero rather than a percentage. In reality however
there is virtually nothing that has a probability of 1 or 0. You could say
that the sun
will certainly rise in the morning, but what if an extremely unlikely event
destroys the sun? What if there is a nuclear war and the sky is covered in ash
We often round the probability of such
things up or down because they are so likely or unlikely to occur, that it's
easier to recognise them as a probability of one or zero.
However, this can often lead to
misunderstandings and dangerous behaviour, because people are unable to
distinguish between, e.g., a probability of 10-4 and a probability
of 10-9, despite the very practical difference between them. If you
expect to cross the road about 105 or 106 times in your
life, then reducing your risk per road crossing to 10-9 will make
you safe for your whole life, while a risk per road crossing of 10-4
will make it very likely that you will have an accident, despite the intuitive
feeling that 0.01% is a very small risk.
Some sciences use applied
statistics so extensively that they have specialized
terminology. These disciplines include:
Statistics form a key basis tool in business
and manufacturing as well. It is used to understand measurement systems
variability, control processes (as in "statistical process control"
or SPC), for summarizing data, and to make data-driven decisions. In these
roles it is a key tool, and perhaps the only reliable tool.
Links to observable statistical phenomena
are collected at statistical
of variance (ANOVA) -- multivariate
statistics -- extreme
value theory -- list
of statisticians -- list
of statistical topics -- machine
How do you solve a percentage increase
- How do you calculate a
percentage increase? For example if your supply of apples increases from
206 to 814, what was the percentage increase?
We can see by subtracting 206
from 814 that the increase in the number of apples is 608. Remember we
started with 206, not zero.
Dividing 814 by 206 gives approximately 3.951 and since we
started with one whole (100%) basket of 206 apples we must subtract one from
this percentage number. This is the step many people miss. So, 3.951
minus 1 equals 2.951. Multiplying this number by 100 to give percentage;
100 times 2.951 gives 295%
increase as the answer.
- Check your work. Does
this answer look correct? Well, if we had 200 apples increasing to 400
(double) that would be a 100% increase. So, increasing from 400 to
600 (another 200 apples) would be another 100% increase. So, increasing
from 600 to 800 (another 200 apples) would be another 100% increase. So
going from 200 to 800 represents an increase of 300%. 3 times our original
amount of 200 equals 600 which is equal to the increase (800 minus 200 =
600). So the answer to our problem should be close to 300%. Our
answer is 295% so it is close to what we would expect. Now let's do an
accurate check of our original problem. 206 times 2.95 equals 608 (the
number of apples increased) which proves our answer is correct.
Math Words: http://www.geocities.com/poetsoutback/etyindex.html
Math Words for Middle Grades: http://mathcentral.uregina.ca/RR/glossary/middle/
VISUAL DICTIONARY OF SPECIAL PLANE CURVES - X. Lee For more information
see Xah Lee's Home Page
VISUAL DICTIONARY OF SPECIAL PLANE CURVES - X. Lee Xah Lee's Home Page
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