Learn physics, science, chemistry, biology, math, astronomy, and electronics. A free science PORTAL to more than 20,000 science sites.
Go To:  http://www.101science.com  -  Your internet science directory and learning center.

Choose a subject for the list below or just browse down the page for details.

Atoms *Electronics Newton's Laws Scalars & Vectors
Barometer - Calculator Equations Momentum Sound
Bernoulli Experiments Motion Speed
Books on Physics Forces Nuclear Physics Standard Model
Calculators Formulas Terminology String Theory

Central Theories

Fringe Theories


Sub fields


General Physics

Parallel Worlds


Data Sheets/Constants Gravity



Decibel Scale

Heat Physics World Mag. Theories-Proposed



Planck's Quantum



Quantum Entanglement

Tutor - Physics


Learn Physics 

Quantum Mechanics



Reading *Transistors

*Links - Physics



Electromagnetic Spectrum

MathCAD   Related /Fields  

What is Physics?

Energy Methods   Relativity Work

MIT Physics - A Must See Video

 The Ultimate Physics Tutor!



(Links to Khan Academy)


Introduction to Physics - Read First Please


PAGE 2 INDEX:   8. Reference  9. Real Video  10. Books
Physics WWW LINKS page.
Physics Tutorials (All levels)  More Tutorials


Welcome to our  physics learning page.  We are very excited about our  physics page as we believe it will remove some of the "mystery of physics" and make it much easier to learn.  To study Physics we suggest you start with our chemistry page to learn about the atom, molecular structure and the elements.  Then turn your attention to mathematics, electronics, biology, microscopy, and space.  You will then have a good background to learn about physics.  We won't repeat material on this physics page that is covered elsewhere at 101science.com.  The world wide web physics links have been moved to our new physics links page.  Be sure to check them out as there is much to be learned there also.  

Why is physics so hard for many students?  We feel much of the problem is that examples are often not clearly and fully explained and the student is not given enough time to figure out the unexplained part on their own.  We think a better way is to explain every detail of an example.  The student then feels better about themselves because they can immediately apply the learned information to other problems. Why frustrate a student with an example that is not fully explained?  We don't think it improves the learning process although some disagree. 

A WONDERFUL PHYSICS SITE: Hyper Physics http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hframe.html

STANFORD UNIVERSITY VIRTUAL PHYSICS SITE http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/Default.htm

Centrifugal Force Lasers
Electrostatics Material Science
Energy Pressure
Gravity Sound
Inertia Thermal Conductivity

1-D Kinematics
Vectors - Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions
Circular Motion and Satellite Motion
Sound Waves and Music
Light Waves and Color
Refraction and the Ray Model of Light


Physics is about; mass, motion, force, vectors (length & direction), velocity, gravity, light, energy, time and space. These are all physical things that can be measured.  To simplify your thinking about physics (Our whole purpose here is to simplify physics for you) just remember that these measurable quantities can be specified with just four basic dimensions:




Physics Classroom
Fear of Physics
Sport Science
Speed Machines
Projectile Motion
iknowthat.com - Projectiles

NobelPrize.org Physics Activities



Speed is the distance traveled divided by the time of travel.  For example; if you were to travel a distance of 10 miles in 2 hours time, then your average speed equals 5 miles per hour.  

s=d/t       (s=speed,  d=distance,  t=time, and the / means to divide)

The word velocity is very similar to speed (except velocity also has a direction called a vector) and in most cases we will now use the letter "v" to describe speed.  So the formula becomes v=d/t.   Most textbooks bold face the units that also contain direction information.  All quantities that are not vectors are called scalars.  Time is a scalar quantity.

The WWW links on this site will take you directly to the various web site pages.  Your browser URL address line will tell you the origin of the site and it's material.

Let's talk a moment about unit conversions.  It makes little difference what set of units you use.  The distance for example could be in miles, feet, or meters.  Just be sure that you do the proper conversions.  Or, use a simple online unit converter HERE or a more detailed professional converter HERE.  Also, be sure the units agree with one another.  For example; Don't mix miles and meters in the same formula.  See our mathematics page for more information.  Physicists use the SI system of measurement which uses meters as the basic length unit.  In most cases it is much simpler to do calculations with SI units.  If your distance is in meters and the time is in seconds then your speed answer will be meters per second.  Makes perfect sense.  Just do some thinking about the units your using.  Yes, physics requires you to think.  That's something you do all the time and it is not difficult.

A very good PHYSICS REFERENCE http://www.alcyone.com/max/reference/physics/index.html page provides an understanding of how these units are related to physics.  Check it out.

Acceleration is a change (difference) in speed divided by the time it takes to make the change.   


If a car takes 10 seconds of time (t) to increase its speed from 30 meters per hour (v0) to 50 meters per hour (v1) it's acceleration (a) would be; 2 meters per hour, per second.  

If an object starts at rest then the velocity (v0) at that time is zero.  If you need to find an unknown change of speed then the formula becomes (v1-v0)=at.  This formula transformation follows the simple rules of algebra.

Acceleration demonstration http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/physics/A+0+0.html

The Strong Force; an Explanation - The Standard Model
Introduction of everyday forces and quarks, leptons, boson's, fundamental particles and other issues.
From Cornell University: Professors Sadoff, Hine.


Some GREAT JAVA Applets http://www.falstad.com/mathphysics.html

Nuclear Physics

School of Physics--Tutorial
LHS Physics Links
Open Directory - Science: Physics: Education: Tutorials
Physics Links Page
PHY 112: PHYSICS II - CHAPTER 30: Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity
Physics Web Resources
Nuclear Physics and Tomography
The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Nuclear Physics
Nuclear physics
Nuclear Physics
Physical Review C
Nuclear Physics: Past, Present and Future
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle PhysicsThe ABC's of Nuclear Science

Physics - Nuclear Terminology

The Language of the Nucleus, on-line edition.
The world's largest nuclear glossary. http://glossary.dataenabled.com/

See out Terminology page for more including physics.

Learn physics the easy way - by watching videos

 Physics I      Physics II      Physics I&II       DVD

In problems concerning gravity on earth the acceleration (a) becomes approximately 9.8 meters per second squared (a).  An object that starts from rest falls for one second at a speed of 9.8 m/s.  After 2 seconds the speed is 19.6 m/s and after 3 seconds it is 29.4 m/s.  This is why the farther you fall the harder you hit the ground.  In actual problems on earth you must also consider the falling object is moving through air which resists the movement of the object.  Then the size of the object also becomes important.

d=v0t  + 1/2at2

Example; A ball starting from rest (V0 = zero) falls for 3 seconds then the distance it has fallen is; .5 x 9.8 x 32 = 4.9 x 9 = 44.1 meters.  Notice we used .5 which is equal to one half.

Gravitation demonstration. http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/physics/A+15+0.html


The laws of Thermodynamics http://www.av8n.com/physics/thermo-laws.htm

Thermodynamics and Thermal Physics
Thermodynamics Physics
Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics
Entropy: Thermodynamics, Physics
Laws of thermodynamics physics toolbox
Physics Encyclopedia: Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics Physics Science English
Thermodynamics (Physics Study Guide) - Wikibooks
AllRefer Encyclopedia - thermodynamics (Physics) - Encyclopedia
Thermodynamics Physics Web Directory

Heat and Thermodynamics



Physics Reference Tables
Physics Constants

Physics Formulas and Symbols
Physics Formulas
Physics Formula Calculators: home work help online
Physics Formulas
The educational encyclopedia, physics equations and formulas

Reviews, Table and Plots

Texas Instruments Calculator Formulas

See our Data Sheets Page for more. . . .

The Cambridge Handbook of Physics Formulas < This is a MUST have Physics handbook

 Fundamental Formulas of Physics, Vol. 1

 Fundamental Formulas of Physics, Vol. 2



THE LAB ARCHIVE http://www.labarchive.net/labdb/search-category?category_id=4

Real Time Experiments!
Little Shop Home
Physics Experiments online
Physics Experiments You Can Do At Home
High Energy Physics Experiments
Physics 2000
Physics: Experiments and Research
The Sciences Explorer - Experiments
Physics 2000
PhysicsWeb - Advanced site search
Advanced Physics Lab List of Experiments
Advanced physics labss
Physics Encyclopedia: Future High Energy Physics Experiments
Pico Technology's Library Of Science Experiments
PHY-U600, Advanced Physics Lab I
2001 Villa Olmo International Conference
K-12: Physics

Distance vs. Speed vs. Time Calculators

Time from Distance and Speed

Enter distance value and unit:
Enter speed value and units:
Time is: Hours Minutes Seconds

Distance from Speed and Time

Enter speed value and units:
Enter time: Hours Minutes Seconds
Distance is (select unit before calculating):

Speed from Distance and Time

Enter distance value and unit:
Enter time: Hours Minutes Seconds
Speed is (select units before calculating):

Free JavaScripts provided
by The JavaScript Source


1.  An object at rest tend to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion at a constant speed.

2.  F = ma       (Force in Newton's SI units, equal mass times acceleration.)

3.  For every force there is an equal and opposite force.


Momentum (F) is the product of the mass of an object and its velocity.  The SI unit of momentum is kg per m/s.

F = m(v1-v0)

WORK (joules)            POWER  (joule/second)

W = Fd                           P = (Fd)/t


Energy can not be created or destroyed.  Energy can be changed from potential (at rest) to KE or kinetic energy (energy in motion).

KE = 1/2 mv2

Conservation of energy demonstration. http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/physics/A+05+0.html

Demonstration list for "How Does A Thing Like That Work"

Links to Other Physics Demonstration Sites


The metric unit of sound intensity is watts/m2.  This unit corresponds to the system used in all fields of physics, expressed in decibels (dB) (1/10 of a bel).  The decibel scale is a compressed scale of measurement.  The least intense sound that can be heard has an intensity of zero decibels.  A zero decibel sound has an intensity of 10-12 watt/m2.  A sound with 10 times the energy is rated at 10 decibels.  A sound with 100 times as much energy as the 0 dB sound is rated at 20 dB.  Ordinary human whisper is about 20 dB.  A conversation is about 60 dB. Sound at 120 dB becomes painful - jet engine noise.  A rocket blasting off at about 100 yards has an intensity of about 180 dB, very loud and very painful.

Decibel conversion calculator - http://www.hameg.de/_rs/Decibel_Conversion_Calculator.pdf

Decibel conversion chart - http://www.testeq.com/charts/decibels.lasso

Table - http://www.fmsystems-inc.com/eng_db.htm

dB conversion - java - http://www.mogami.com/e/cad/db.html

dB conversion - http://www.bessernet.com/jobAids/dBCalc/dBCalc.html

Design utilities - http://www.ecommwireless.com/calculations.html

Microvolts to dBm conversion chart - http://www.moseleysb.com/mv2dBm.html

Decibel to Watt conversion - http://www.odessaoffice.com/wireless/decibel.html

Conversion Units - http://www.radioing.com/hamradio/convert.html

RF Power conversion table - http://www.decibelproducts.com/dbtech_7.html

The metric system - http://forum.hotplugins.com/cgi-bin/showforum.cgi?fbid=88&pg=2


Light exhibits characteristics of waves and sometimes as particles.  Einstein proposed that light travels as photons (quanta - small packets) of energy.  The speed of light is 3 x 108 m/s or 186,000 miles per second.  Light is the visible spectrum portion of electromagnetic waves.  Red light is the lowest frequency of light and violet is the highest frequency.  

Orange, yellow, green, and indigo are colors in between red and violet.

Radio  -  Television -  Infrared  -        LIGHT  -  ultraviolet - x-rays - gamma rays
|                      |


Light spectrum of colors visible by unaided human eye.

  visible visible visible visible visible visible visible  
Ultra  Violet Violet Indigo Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Infra Red
(l Range) 400-460  460-475  475-490  490-565  565-575  575-600  600-800  (nm)
(Avg. l) 430 467.5 482.5 527.5 570 587.5 700 (nm)
(Energy) 4.65 4.25 4.15 3.8 3.475 3.375 2.9 (10-19 J)

Light and Electromagnetic Waves

LIGHT/OPTICS - TUTORIAL http://www.intl-light.com/handbook/index.html#TOC

Propagation of light demonstration. http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/physics/E+55+0.html

Link to Light Color Science. http://www.physics.sfasu.edu/astro/color.html

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION - EXPLAINED http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l1/emspectrum.html

Vibrations and Waves - http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/Demos.html

How we see - Human Vision -  http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/vision_background.html


Additive Colors
Subtractive Colors
Basic Prism
Ray Tracing
Fermat's Principle
Interference Patterns
Refraction of Light
Refracting Astronomical Telescope
spectrum tuner
color addition
Reflection/Refraction (Water-air Interface)
Thin Lens Demonstration
Thin Lens Combination
Thick Lens
Physics of Rainbows
Shadow/Image and Color
Fermat Principal
The World of Color**
Mixing Colored Light Beams
Light: a myriad of colors..
How a pinhole camera works
Bragg's Law of Diffraction

Other web links on electromagnetic radiation:

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum The Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is a continuum of all electromagnetic waves arranged according to frequency and wavelength.

A New Interpretation of Light
A new theory about light and color which combines elements of Goethe's Theory of Colors and Maxwell's electromagnetic wave theory.

EMF - Electromagnetic Field Basics
EMF Basics: information about the behavior of electric and magnetic fields at the ELF or power frequency level

LIGHT SPECTRA OBSERVING OBJECTS IN SPACE Objective Try to Determine the Type of Light Shown in Spectra of Objects in Space Use the Tool in the Bottom Frame for This Section!

Static Electromagnetic Fields and Human Health: Questions and Answers
Questions and answers on the connection between static (direct current, DC) magnetic or electric fields and cancer; including sources of exposure, summaries of the laboratory and human studies, and information on standards.

Light and Color @ The Franklin Institute
Light and Color The Franklin Institute Resources Visit the Museum Programs Partnerships Legacy About Us Friends Light and Color How do we See?

Links to School of the Sciences  http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/lightspeed.htm

The Physics Classroom
The Physics Classroom
Faster Than Light Physics
Light - Physics
Physics - The Complete Guide to Physics - Articles - Glossary
physics central physics in action - slow light
Light Reflection
Light Waves and Color - Table of Contents
Refraction - Table of Contents
Some Emerging Possibilities
Particles and relativity
Quantum Physics: The Nodal Theory: Chapter 8: Advanced and 
Curious About Astronomy? General Physics
The Dual Nature of Light as Reflected in the Nobel Archive
Homepage of Advanced Warp Physics
The Light Cone: Introduction
Advanced Physics Forums
Advanced Physics Forums - powered by XMB
Physics Classroom Table of Contents


Additive Colors
Subtractive Colors
Basic Prism
Ray Tracing
Fermat's Principle
Interference Patterns
Refraction of Light
Refracting Astronomical Telescope
spectrum tuner
color addition
Reflection/Refraction (Water-air Interface)
Thin Lens Demonstration
Thin Lens Combination
Thick Lens
Physics of Rainbows
Shadow/Image and Color
Fermat Principal
The World of Color**
Mixing Colored Light Beams
Light: a myriad of colors..
How a pinhole camera works
Bragg's Law of Diffraction

Physics JAVA Applets


DOE Handbooks

Online Approved Department Of Energy Technical Standards

[The few standards that are listed here are the ones relevant to this section,
check above link for the complete listening.]

Number  Title 
DOE-HDBK-1010-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Classical Physics (142 pages)
PDF (1120 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1011/1-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Electrical Science, Volume 1 of 4 (166 pages)
PDF (4255 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1011/2-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Electrical Science, Volume 2 of 4 (118 pages)
PDF (3317 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1011/3-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Electrical Science, Volume 3 of 4 (126 pages)
PDF (2234 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1011/4-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Electrical Science, Volume 4 of 4 (142 pages)
PDF (4800 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1012/1-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow, Volume 1 of 3 (138 pages)
PDF (2994 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1012/2-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow, Volume 2 of 3 (80 pages)
PDF (1193 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1012/3-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow, Volume 3 of 3 (82 pages)
PDF (1214 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1013/1-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Instrumentation and Control, Volume 1 of 2 (132 pages)
PDF (2639 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1013/2-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Instrumentation and Control, Volume 2 of 2 (168 pages)
PDF (3504 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1014/1-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Mathematics Volume 1 of 2 (206 pages)
PDF (1436 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1014/2-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Mathematics Volume 2 of 2 (112 pages)
PDF (932 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1015/1-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Chemistry, Volume 1 of 2 (140 pages)
PDF (3950 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1015/2-92  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Chemistry, Volume 2 of 2 (138 pages)
PDF (2898 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Engineering Symbology, Prints, and Drawings, Volume 1 of 2 (120 pages)
PDF (8231 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1016/2-93  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Engineering Symbology, Prints, and Drawings, Volume 2 of 2 (96 pages)
PDF (4453 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1017/1-93  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Material Science, Volume 1 of 2 (102 pages)
PDF (2217 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1017/2-93  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Material Science, Volume 2 of 2 (112 pages)
PDF (1441 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1018/1-93  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Mechanical Science, Volume 1 of 2 (139 pages)
PDF (5136 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1018/2-93  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Mechanical Science, Volume 2 of 2 (130 pages)
PDF (5465 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1019/1-93  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory, Volume 1 of 2 (142 pages)
PDF (3464 KB) 
DOE-HDBK-1019/2-93  DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory, Volume 2 of 2 (128 pages)
PDF (1988 KB) 


Online Approved DOE Technical Standards



Wave Motion



The physics of SOUND I.  http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/demobook/chapter3.htm

The Physics of SOUND II http://interface.cipic.ucdavis.edu/CIL_tutorial/3D_phys/3D_phys.htm

The Nature of a sound wave http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/sound/soundtoc.html

SOUND TUTORIAL http://www.intl-light.com/handbook/index.html#TOC


The DOPPLER Effect - http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/physics/u5c32phy.html

Physics Demonstrations - Heat

Physics Demonstrations - Magnetism

HyperPhysics Concepts
The Soundry
The Soundry: The Physics of Sound
FearOfPhysics.com: Introduction to what sound is
Yahooligans! - Science and Nature:Physical Sciences:Physics:Sound
Acoustics and the Physics of Sound - Acoustic Guitar Physics 
The Physics Classroom
The Physics Classroom
Google Directory - Kids and Teens > School Time > Science >

Physics Demonstrations - Videos




UC Berkeley Physics Lecture Demonstrations
Index to Physics Demonstration Equipment
Physics Demonstrations - Introduction
Physics demonstrations, Science Exhibits (Bill B's Homepages)
Dramatic Physics Demonstrations
NC State Physics Demonstrations
Physics Demonstration Resources Online for Science Educators
Physics Lecture Demonstrations at the University of Texas at 
University of Oregon Physics Demonstration Catalog

Physics Demonstration Videos WFU




E = hf

E = energy of a quantum (smallest packet of energy possible) of radiation of a frequency f that is absorbed as the blackbody radiates away energy.  The symbol h is called Plank's constant and is a number we use as a multiplier of frequency to calculate the amount of energy in a quantum.  Einstein believed energy traveled in photons, or chunks of energy called quantum. It is believed that a quantum is the smallest chunk of energy possible.

Or, E = Nhf where N is an integer, f is the frequency of vibration and h equals Planck's constant.

Quantum mechanical barrier penetration demonstration.
Particle Nature of Light: Planck's Quantum Hypothesis

Planck's Hypothesis
PinkMonkey.com Physics Study Guide - Section CHAPTER 29 : PLANCK'S
Symposium on the Centennial of Planck's discovery of the Quantum
Light Quantum
Quantum Mechanics
Origins of Quantum Mechanics
The uncertainty Principle
[PDF] Planck's Quantum Hypothesis

MATHCAD for Physics

MathCAD File Site
Mathcad Files
Mathcad Examples for Physics Courses
[DOC] Physics 421 MathCAD Exercise 1
MATHCAD, MATLAB, maple & mathematica - Physics Forums
Mathcad at Florida Tech
Physics Related Software Manuals/Links
Mercer Physics Seminar 4/17/2002
Smart's Scientific Journal
Cleveland State University
Resources for Courses using Mathcad at UW
Scientific Computing with Mathcad
MATHCAD, MATLAB, maple & mathematica - Physics Forums
[PDF] Introduction to the use of MATHCAD on the PC
Mathcad @ AdeptScience: The Ultimate Technical Design Solution
Mathcad Tutorial
Dr. Miron Kaufman's Home Page
mathcad problem - Physics Help and Math Help - Physics Forums
[DOC] Physics 421 MathCAD Exercise 1
MathCAD File Site
dms home page
search mathcad.com
search mathcad.com
Mathcad Examples for Physics Courses


Learn About General Relativity -  http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/gr/gr.html

Yahoo! Directory Physics > Relativity
Usenet Relativity FAQ
Experimental Basis of Special Relativity
Faster Than Light
1k - Jun 17, 2004 - Cached - Similar pages
Open Directory - Science: Physics: Relativity
Open Directory - Science: Physics: Relativity: Time Travel
Index of /be045132
Antigravity. Quantum Physics. Relativity. Time Travel
How to Learn Quantum Mechanics Starting with Little or No Math
Astro2 Website
Science Forums - General relativity, will we learn otherwise?
Alice Law - Download Free Shareware software - Learn Special ...
FTL and Relativity
Famous People: Albert Einstein | eThemes | eMINTS

Quote by a famous scientist.  
"The "principle of relativity" in its widest sense is contained in the statement: The totality of physical phenomena is of such a character that it gives no basis for the introduction of the concept of "absolute motion"; or shorter but less precise: There is no absolute motion."  Albert Einstein (1979-1955)


Physics Virtual Bookshelf: Quantum Mechanics
HyperPhysics Concepts

Visual Quantum Mechanics
Quantum mechanics history
Spectral LinesOpen Directory - Science: Physics: Quantum Mechanics
Quantum Mechanics
Quantum Mechanics -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Physics
Quantum Mechanics Examples


What is Quantum Physics?
Quantum Physics Online
Quantum Physics
What is Quantum Physics
Local Quantum Physics Crossroads
HyperPhysics Concepts
Visual Quantum Mechanics
Quantum Physics


E = hf

E = energy of a quantum (smallest packet of energy possible) of radiation of a frequency f that is absorbed as the blackbody radiates away energy.  The symbol h is called Plank's constant and is a number we use as a multiplier of frequency to calculate the amount of energy in a quantum.  Einstein believed energy traveled in photons, or chunks of energy called quantum. It is believed that a quantum is the smallest chunk of energy possible.

Quantum mechanical barrier penetration demonstration.
Particle Nature of Light: Planck's Quantum Hypothesis

Planck's Hypothesis
PinkMonkey.com Physics Study Guide - Section CHAPTER 29 : PLANCK'S
Symposium on the Centennial of Planck's discovery of the Quantum
Light Quantum
Quantum Mechanics
Origins of Quantum Mechanics
The uncertainty Principle
[PDF] Planck's Quantum Hypothesis














String Theory and the Unification of Forces: Sunil Mukhi
The Official String Theory Web Site
String Theory Basics
Superstring Theory
J. Pierre's Super Strings pages have moved.
Physics String Theory: Wave Structure of Matter explains String
String theory - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Strings 2000 Conference - Home Page
NOVA | The Elegant Universe | A Theory of Everything? | PBS


General Physics Topics - Georgia Tech http://www.physics.gatech.edu/academics/tutorial/

Physics Explained  http://www.fearofphysics.com/

Gravity  - Nasa
Trajectory | Shoot the Cannon Applet
Circular motion

Physics and Astronomy Reference Site http://www.physlink.com/Reference/Index.cfm

Physics Constants and References  http://www.alcyone.com/max/physics/

Equations Sheets for Reference  http://www.equationsheet.com/


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Find out how you can help support Wikipedia's phenomenal growth.

Overview of physics


Main article: Theories of Physics

Central theories

Classical mechanics -- Thermodynamics -- Statistical mechanics -- Electromagnetism -- Special relativity -- General relativity -- Quantum mechanics -- Quantum field theory -- Standard Model -- Fluid mechanics

Proposed theories

Theory of everything -- Grand unification theory -- M-theory -- Loop quantum gravity -- Emergence

Fringe theories

Cold fusion -- Dynamic theory of gravity -- Luminiferous aether -- Orgone energy -- Reciprocal System of Theory -- Steady state theory


Matter -- Antimatter -- Elementary particle -- Boson -- Fermion

Symmetry -- Motion -- Conservation law -- Mass -- Energy -- Momentum -- Angular momentum -- Spin

Time -- Space -- Dimension -- Spacetime -- Length -- Velocity -- Force -- Torque

Wave -- Wavefunction -- Quantum entanglement -- Harmonic oscillator -- Magnetism -- Electricity -- Electromagnetic radiation -- Temperature -- Entropy -- Physical information

Phase transitions -- critical phenomena -- Spontaneous symmetry breaking -- Superconductivity -- Superfluidity -- Quantum phase transitions

Fundamental forces

Gravitational -- Electromagnetic -- Weak -- Strong


Main article: Particles

Atom -- Proton -- Neutron -- Electron -- Quark -- Photon -- Gluon -- W boson -- Z boson -- Graviton -- Neutrino -- Particle radiation

THE STANDARD MODEL AND INTERACTION OF PARTICLES http://www.cpepweb.org/cpep_sm_large.html

Subfields of physics

Astrophysics -- Atomic, Molecular, and Optical physics -- Computational physics -- Condensed matter physics -- Cosmology -- Cryogenics -- Fluid dynamics -- Polymer physics -- Optics -- Materials physics -- Nuclear physics -- Plasma physics -- Particle physics (or High Energy Physics) -- Vehicle dynamics


Introduction to the Scientific Method
Introduction to Chemistry and Physics - First Grading Period
Jiskha Homework Help - Science: Physics: Scientific Method
[PDF] Commentaries on physics education by David Hestenes The scientific
Scientific Method Lab Physics 110 Astronomy
Physics 3333 - The Scientific Method
The Scientific Attitude
Simulations in Physics

Numerical methods
II. Evaluation Methods - Physics, BS
Methods of Experimental Physics Laboratory
Lecture Notes : Methods of Mathematical Physics I
Department of Mathematical Methods in Physics
International Journal of Geometric Methods in Modern Physics


List of physical laws -- Physical constants -- SI base units -- SI derived units -- SI prefixes -- Unit conversions


History of Physics -- Famous Physicists -- Nobel Prize in physics

Related Fields

Astronomy and Astrophysics -- Biophysics -- Electronics -- Engineering -- Geophysics -- Materials science -- Mathematical physics -- Medical physics -- Physical Chemistry

A brief history of physics

Note: The following is a cursory overview of the development of physics. For a more detailed history, please refer to History of physics.

Since antiquity, people have tried to understand the behavior of matter: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, and so forth. Also a mystery was the character of the universe, such as the form of the Earth and the behavior of celestial objects such as the Sun and the Moon. Several theories were proposed, most of them were wrong. These theories were largely couched in philosophical terms, and never verified by systematic experimental testing. There were exceptions and there are anachronisms: for example, the Greek thinker Archimedes derived many correct quantitative descriptions of mechanics and hydrostatics.

During the late 16th century, Galileo pioneered the use of experiment to validate physical theories, which is the key idea in the scientific method. Galileo formulated and successfully tested several results in dynamics, in particular the Law of Inertia. In 1687, Newton published the Principia Mathematica, detailing two comprehensive and successful physical theories: Newton's laws of motion, from which arise classical mechanics; and Newton's Law of Gravitation, which describes the fundamental force of gravity. Both theories agreed well with experiment. Classical mechanics would be exhaustively extended by Lagrange, Hamilton, and others, who produced new formulations, principles, and results. The Law of Gravitation initiated the field of astrophysics, which describes astronomical phenomena using physical theories.

From the 18th century onwards, thermodynamics was developed by Boyle, Young, and many others. In 1733, Bernoulli used statistical arguments with classical mechanics to derive thermodynamic results, initiating the field of statistical mechanics. In 1798, Thompson demonstrated the conversion of mechanical work into heat, and in 1847 Joule stated the law of conservation of energy, in the form of heat as well as mechanical energy.

The behavior of electricity and magnetism was studied by Faraday, Ohm, and others. In 1855, Maxwell unified the two phenomena into a single theory of electromagnetism, described by Maxwell's equations. A prediction of this theory was that light is an electromagnetic wave.

In 1895, Roentgen discovered X-rays, which turned out to be high-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Radioactivity was discovered in 1896 by Henri Becquerel, and further studied by Pierre Curie and Marie Curie and others. This initiated the field of nuclear physics.

In 1897, Thomson discovered the electron, the elementary particle which carries electrical current in circuits. In 1904, he proposed the first model of the atom, known as the plum pudding model. (The existence of the atom had been proposed in 1808 by Dalton.)

In 1905, Einstein formulated the theory of special relativity, unifying space and time into a single entity, spacetime. Relativity prescribes a different transformation between reference frames than classical mechanics; this necessitated the development of relativistic mechanics as a replacement for classical mechanics. In the regime of low (relative) velocities, the two theories agree. In 1915, Einstein extended special relativity to explain gravity with the general theory of relativity, which replaces Newton's law of gravitation. In the regime of low masses and energies, the two theories agree.

In 1911, Rutherford deduced from scattering experiments the existence of a compact atomic nucleus, with positively charged constituents dubbed protons. Neutrons, the neutral nuclear constituents, were discovered in 1932 by Chadwick.

Beginning in 1900, Planck, Einstein, Bohr, and others developed quantum theories to explain various anomalous experimental results by introducing discrete energy levels. In 1925, Heisenberg and 1926, Schrödinger and Dirac formulated quantum mechanics, which explained the preceding quantum theories. In quantum mechanics, the outcomes of physical measurements are inherently probabilistic; the theory describes the calculation of these probabilities. It successfully describes the behavior of matter at small distance scales.

Quantum mechanics also provided the theoretical tools for condensed matter physics, which studies the physical behavior of solids and liquids, including phenomena such as crystal structures, semiconductivity, and superconductivity. The pioneers of condensed matter physics include Bloch, who created a quantum mechanical description of the behavior of electrons in crystal structures in 1928.

During World War II, research was conducted by each side into nuclear physics, for the purpose of creating a nuclear bomb. The German effort, led by Heisenberg, did not succeed, but the Allied Manhattan Project reached its goal. In America, a team led by Fermi achieved the first man-made nuclear chain reaction in 1942, and in 1945 the world's first nuclear explosive was detonated at Trinity site, near Alamogordo, New Mexico.

Quantum field theory was formulated in order to extend quantum mechanics to be consistent with special relativity. It achieved its modern form in the late 1940s with work by Feynman, Schwinger, Tomonaga, and Dyson. They formulated the theory of quantum electrodynamics, which describes the electromagnetic interaction.

Quantum field theory provided the framework for modern particle physics, which studies fundamental forces and elementary particles. In 1954, Yang and Mills developed a class of gauge theories, which provided the framework for the Standard Model. The Standard Model, which was completed in the 1970s, successfully describes almost all elementary particles observed to date.

Future directions

As of 2003, research is progressing on a large number of fields of physics.

In condensed matter physics, the biggest unsolved theoretical problem is the explanation for high-temperature superconductivity. Strong efforts, largely experimental, are being put into making workable spintronics and quantum computers.

In particle physics, the first pieces of experimental evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model have begun to appear. Foremost amongst this are indications that neutrinos have non-zero mass. These experimental results appear to have solved the long-standing solar neutrino problem in solar physics. The physics of massive neutrinos is currently an area of active theoretical and experimental research. In the next several years, particle accelerators will begin probing energy scales in the TeV range, in which experimentalists are hoping to find evidence for the higgs boson and supersymmetric particles.

Theoretical attempts to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity into a single theory of quantum gravity, a program ongoing for over half a century, has yet to bear fruit. The current leading candidates are M-theory and loop quantum gravity.

Many astronomical phenomena have yet to be explained, including the existence of ultra-high energy cosmic rays and the anomalous rotation rates of galaxies. Theories that have been proposed to resolve these problems include doubly-special relativity, modified Newtonian dynamics, and the existence of dark matter. In addition, the cosmological predictions of the last several decades have been contradicted by recent evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating.

See unsolved problems in physics for a fuller treatment of this subject.

Suggested reading and external links


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Bernoulli's Law -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Physics
Physics of flight - revisited
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Gravity -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Physics
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GCSE Physics: Index
The Physics index links to the sections in which the following references are made.


Current Electricity | Glossary | Ohm's Law | Parallel Circuits | Series Circuits | Voltage & Current


Current Electricity | Glossary | Ohm's Law | Parallel Circuits | Series Circuits | Voltage & Current




Atoms | Glossary


Asteroids | Meteorites | The Solar System

Asteroid Belt



Earth & Moon | Glossary


Atoms | Glossary | Resistance & Resistors


Cells & Batteries | Circuits | Glossary

big bang

The Big Bang | Evidence

black hole

Black Holes


Atoms | Glossary


Cells & Batteries | Circuits | Glossary | Ohm's Law | Voltage & Current

charge (electric)

Atoms | Glossary | Static Electricity

circuit (parallel)

Glossary | Parallel Circuits | Series Circuits

circuit (series)

Cells & Batteries | Glossary | Parallel Circuits | Series Circuits




Comets | Meteors | Meteorites | The Solar System


Conduction in non-metals | Conduction in metals


Current Electricity | Glossary | Resistance & Resistors


Convection | Convection in rooms


An eclipse


Current Electricity | Cells & Batteries | Electricity | Glossary | Ohm's Law | Parallel Circuits | Series Circuits | Resistance & Resistors | Voltage & Current

Critical Angle

Critical Angle

doppler shift

The Big Bang | Evidence


The Earth & Moon | An Eclipse | The Force of Gravity | The Planets | The Solar System | The Sun


Earthquake waves


An eclipse

electromagnetic spectrum

Electromagnetic Spectrum | Electromagnetic Spectrum 2

electromotive force

Glossary | Ohm's Law | Voltage & Current


Atoms | Current Electricity | Electricity | Glossary | Resistance & Resistors | Static Electricity

element (chemical)

Atoms | Glossary

element (electric)

Circuits | Glossary | Resistance & Resistors

Franklin, Benjamin

Current Electricity


Frequency | Frequency 2


Hubble Expansion


Gamma waves | Gamma wave uses |Gamma radiation | Penetration


Black Holes | The Force of Gravity | Gravity & Galaxies | Neutron Stars | Star Formation | The Sun


Glossary | Static Electricity

Hale Bopp



Star Formation | Main Sequence Stars


Star Formation | Main Sequence Stars


Electricity | Glossary | Static Electricity

infra red

Infra Red


The Planets | The Solar System


Red Giants | Glossary


The Force of Gravity | Glossary


Visible light

light year

Light Travels | Light Years


Longitudinal waves



main sequence

Main Sequence Stars | Red Giants


The Force of Gravity


Atoms | Glossary


The Force of Gravity | The Planets | The Solar System



meteor shower




Milky Way

White Dwarfs


Asteroids | Meteorites


Moments | Balancing Moments


The Earth & Moon | An Eclipse | The Planets


Star Formation

negative charge

Atoms | Current Electricity | Glossary | Static Electricity

negative ion

Atoms | Glossary

negative terminal

Cells & Batteries | Circuits | Current Electricity | Glossary


The Planets | The Solar System


The Force of Gravity | Glossary


Atoms | Glossary


Atoms | Glossary | Static Electricity

neutron star

Neutron Stars


Glossary | Ohm's Law | Resistance & Resistors

Ohm, Georg

Glossary | Resistance & Resistors

Ohm's law

Glossary | Ohm's Law


Atoms | Electricity | Glossary | Star Formation


An Eclipse


Asteroids | Earth & Moon | Meteorites | The Planets | The Solar System | The Sun


Glossary | Static Electricity


The Planets | The Solar System

positive charge

Atoms | Cells & Batteries | Glossary | Star Formation

positive terminal

Cells & Batteries | Circuits

potential difference

Glossary | Voltage & Current


Atoms | Glossary | Static Electricity


Star Formation

Proxima Centuri

The Sun


Neutron Stars




Neutron Stars | Radio waves

red shift


red giant

Red Giants






Glossary | Ohm's Law | Resistance & Resistors


Glossary | Ohm's Law | Resistance & Resistors


Earth & Moon | Glossary


The Planets | The Solar System

seismic waves

Seismic waves

shooting star



Black Holes

solar system

Asteroids | Comets | The Force of Gravity | Meteorites | The Planets | The Solar System | The Sun

solar wind



Electromagnetic Spectrum


Stars | The Sun


Electricity | Static Electricity


Asteroids | Comets | Earth & Moon | An Eclipse | The Force of Gravity | The Planets | The Solar System | The Sun


Neutron Stars

Thomson, Sir Joseph J

Current Electricity

Total Internal Reflection

Total Internal Reflection | Critical Angle

ultra violet

Ultra violet

universal gravitational constant

The Force of Gravity | Glossary


The Universe | What Next?


The Planets | The Solar System


The Force of Gravity | The Planets | The Solar System


Glossary | Ohm's Law | Voltage & Current




The Force of Gravity

white dwarf

White Dwarfs


Neutron Stars | X-rays


Amusement Park Physics by Learner.org

How do physics laws affect amusement park ride design?


College Physics for Students of Biology & Chemistry by Kenneth R. Koehler

This is a hypertextbook written for first-year undergraduate physics students.


Physics of Matter, Energy, Motion, and Forces by EncycloZine

Physics is a major branch of science, concerned with the fundamental components of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces.


Simple Harmonic Motion by University of Guelph

Amplitude, Period, and Frequency, Phase, Initial Phase, Velocity and Acceleration


Introduction to Free Body Diagrams by University of Guelph

No doubt you are aware of free body diagrams (otherwise known as FBD's).


What is Torque? by University of Guelph

Torque is a measure of how much a force acting on an object causes that object to rotate.


Torque and Angular Acceleration by University of Guelph

In this section, we will develop the relationship between torque and angular acceleration. You will need to have a basic understanding of moments of inertia for this section.


The Quantum Theory by General Chemistry Online

The quantum theory that describes the behavior of electrons is a cornerstone in modern chemistry.



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