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General Astronomy

References VIDEO - HUBBLE!
Genesis Saturn Free Space Books


SBIG Santa Barbara Instrument Group
OPT - Astronomy Telescopes, Accessories, CCD and Digital Cameras
The Role of CCD Cameras in Amateur Astronomy
telescopes, binoculars, CCD cameras, astronomical accessories, scs
Cookbook Camera Home Page
Student Work on astronomy, CCD cameras, aug 98
ITE - CCD Cameras
Camera for Astronomy, Telescopes and Astrophotography
CCD Astronomy
Cookbook CCD camera FAQs
CCD Astronomy on Linux
David Hinds Ltd, astronomy telescopes and astronomical suppliers
Using CCDs - Dave's Astronomy Magazine
Article: The Astronomy CCD camera comparison calculator for
Low light CCD Camera Data
Ron Wodaski's astro pages
Digitec Optical - Telescopes, CCD Cameras, Astronomy Accessories
Astronomy: Business: Telescopes, Binoculars and Accessories: CCD 
Astromart - Your global astronomy resource
Astronomy Telescopes, Accessories, CCD and Digital Cameras
Starlight Xpress MX5C CCD Camera - Dave's Astronomy Magazine
Astronomy Community - NGC7000 by my home made CCD camera
Astronomy Community - NGC7000 by my home made CCD camera
Ccd Camera Sources at Astronomics.com
Ron Wodaski's Magic CCD Camera Calculator

Using a cheap B/W CCD camera for astronomy
low cost security color ccd cameras from Mintron
Astromart - Your global astronomy resource
NSO: Astronomy: CCD Cameras
Welcome to Software Bisque's Web Page
Astronomical Imaging
SAC 7 Color CCD Camera - SAC7 from Digitec Optical
David's Astronomy - CCD Imaging
Photonic Science visible band Intensified CCD camera and x-ray 

CCD Astronomy Handbook

   5 out of 5 stars Amazing value, September 27, 2000


I participated in a beta test of the photometry software program and proof-read a draft of this excellent book. The book alone is worth the price, but the amazing value is the powerful software package included, AIP4WIN. It does so many image processing tasks- photometry, astrometry, spectroscopy, color pictures, image sharpening - with several deconvolution routines. This is much more than a toy (but you certainly can have fun with it) as it supports routine image processing of hundreds of images per night. The software alone is worth several times the price of the book. Anyone interested in putting a CCD camera to serious work - or serious fun - will certainly get their money's worth with this package! Berry and Burnell have a really excellent effort here.



List of the nearest stars  (Nearest to Earth)
The 26 Nearest Stars
Re: Planets Circling Four Of The Closest Stars?
stmc 2MASS Point Source Catalog Search Examples
Astronomy Resources
The Universe within 12.5 Light Years - The Nearest stars
The Impact Lab at the DaVinci Institute - Fifth Closest Star ...
Closest star to the Sun?
Planet Hit List - Astronomy In Your Hands

List of the nearest stars, ordered by their distance from us:
(0. Sun )
 1. Alpha Centauri
 2. Barnard's Star
 3. Wolf 359
 4. Lalande 21185
 5. L726-8 (UV Ceti)
 6. Sirius
 7. Ross 154
 8. Ross 248
 9. Epsilon Eridani
10. Lacaille 9352
11. Ross 128
12. EZ Aquarii
13. Procyon
14. 61 Cygni
15. Struve 2398
16. Groombridge 34
  17. DX Cancri
18. Epsilon Indi
19. Tau Ceti
20. Gliese & Jahreiss 1061
21. YZ Ceti
22. Luyten's Star
23. Teegarden's Star
24. SCR 1845-6357
25. Kapteyn's Star
26. AX Microscopii
27. DO Cephei
28. DEN 1048-3956
29. V577 Monocerotis
30. Wolf 1061
31. FL Virginis
32. Van Maanen's Star
33. CD -3715492
  34. Luyten 1159-16
35. Luyten 143-23
36. Gliese 687
37. Luyten Palomar 731-58
38. CD -4611540
39. CC 658
40. Giclas 158-27
41. Gliese 876 *
42. V1581 Cygni
43. WX Ursae Majoris
44. Groombridge 1618
45. AD Leonis
46. CD -4913515
47. CD -4411909
48. Omicron2 Eridani
49. EV Lacertae
50. 70 Ophiuchi

Astronomy The Nearest Stars

List of the brightest stars 
The 26 Brightest Stars

Brightest Stars
Observers Handbook Table
List of brightest stars - Wikipedia
Encyclopedia: List of brightest stars
List of Brighter Stars by Season
List of brightest stars - ezResult.com
Astronomy Public Outreach - Stellar Brightness
Talk:List of brightest stars - Wikipedia
Bright Stars Worth Knowing

List of the reddest stars

Examples of TASS Mark IV Data
SkyCmd Stars
Galaxies in the Universe: errata
Yahoo! Groups : starrynights Messages : Message 17309 of 20508
SkyTools 1.x Observing List Downloads
Polarimetry of 24 Highly Redden Stars within the Galactic Plane
NGC4496 A&B galaxies

Red Stars

     61005BBBB   Giclas - GR -
     620030BBB   Vyssotsky lists
     61018BBBB   Stephenson Gen. Cat. of Cool Carbon Stars
     620117BBB   Upgren et Al, dK and dM stars (south)
     620141BBB   MacConnell & Frye & Upgren, (Barium Stars)
     6009BBBBB   Dearborn Obs. Catalogue  - DO -
     620172BBB   Yamashita *C

GCPD Code for common star catalogues

List of the bluest stars

MisV1097 is also recorded in the 2MASS catalog. The 2MASS J-Ks color is 0.160 mag. This is the bluest value among all MisV stars recorded in the 2MASS catalog until MisV1118.MisV1097 is a blue W UMa-type eclipsing variable
Faint Blue Stars

     6000BBBBB   Luyten, A Search for Faint Blue Stars - LB -
     61006BBBB   Giclas - GD -
     61016BBBB   Haro & Luyten - PHL -
     620001BBB   Feige list
     620004BBB   Humason & Zwicky - HZ -
     620015BBB   Barbieri (1968)
     620016BBB   Barbieri & Rosino (1972)
     620022BBB   Jaidee & Lynga - JL -
     620028BBB   Klemola (1961)
     620124BBB   Greenstein & Sargent - FB -

GCPD Code for common star catalogues 

Spectral class: A, B, O

With more than three and up to 150 solar masses a star shines blue - the bigger and hotter the more intensive. These stars burn their fuel much quicker than their smaller fellows and for this are much more luminous. After a few to a few hundred million years they leave the main sequence and, except the most biggest, become Red Giants or Supergiants. Very big ones of these don't expand so strongly when leaving the main sequence, stay blue, but become unstable.
Blue stars are rather seldom but because of their brightness we can see many of them in the sky.

Blue Stars could have Planets, but their life span is much too short to evolve life on this planets.

Example: Alnitak

Back: About Stars | Continue: Old Stars

List of the most distant stars

StarDate Online | Teacher Guide
BIOASTRO Mailing List: SETI bioastro: Fw: Most Distant Group of
MSNBC - Oldest, most distant galaxy clusters found
The Stars of Project Phoenix: The Best Are Not Always the ...
Astronomy Mailing List Archive: Age and Size of Universe (long) ...
Subaru Detects the Most Distant Galaxy Yet
[74.01] The Grid Giant Star Survey (GGSS) for SIM: A Status Report
The Universe within 1 billion Light Years - The Neighbouring ...
Other Worlds, Distant Suns
Dr. Ben Bova Faint Echoes, Distant Stars: The Science and Politics ...
SETI Public Mailing List: SETI public: Major solar flares ...
Origins: Library
Eight Objects Orbiting Distant Stars
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML

Star size and mass

Star -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Astronomy
Astronomy 162: Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology
Curious About Astronomy: Why is pressure broadening greater in low ...
[PPT] 1B11 Foundations of Astronomy Star names and magnitudes
File Format: Microsoft Powerpoint 97 - View as HTML
Stellar Evolution: Main Sequence
Lives and Deaths of Stars
[PDF] Physics C056, Astronomy Temple University, Spring 2003 Professor ...
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
Fusion in Stars - Zoom Astronomy
[PDF] Astronomy 191 - Stars 2 Stellar classification Stellar ...
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
PDF] Evolved Stars at PTI: Size, Shape, Mass and Atmospheric Structure
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
Science Blog - Low-mass stars in binary stars appear to behave ...
ScienceDaily News Release: Astronomers Show That Low-mass Stars In ...
The Size and Age of the Universe - Introduction
Medium-size stars
Studies Pins Down Quantity, Size of Dark Matter in Universe
[PDF] Studying Inner Disks around Intermediate-mass YSOs and Vega-type ...
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
Neutron Star's Glitch is Physicists' Gain
Press Release

 1.   The Life of Stars
 2.   The Measured Values
 3.   Young Stars
 4.    Main Sequence Stars
 4.1  Red Dwarfs
 4.2  Orange, Yellow and White Stars
 4.3  Blue Stars
 5.    Old Stars
 5.1  Red Giants
 5.2  Red Supergiants
 5.3  Wolf-Rayet Stars
 5.4  LBV
 5.5  Intermediate Stages
 5.6  White Dwarfs
 5.7  Extreme End-Stages, Supernova
 6.    Novae
 7.    Brown Dwarfs
 8.    Planets
 9.    Galaxies
10.   Cosmology
11.   Alien Life in Space

Black Holes

black holes and event horizons - ghosts of stars
Curious About Astronomy? Black Holes and Quasars
Yahoo! Directory Astronomy > Black Holes
Black Holes and Neutron Stars
Science Line - Resources - Physics & Astronomy - Black Holes
NSO: Astronomy: Black Holes
Ask the Space Scientist, - Astronomy FAQ archive of questions and ...
APOD Index - Stars: Black Holes
Chandra :: Field Guide to X-ray Sources :: Black Holes
Science : ASTRONOMY: Black Holes Enter the Middleweights ...

Imagine the Universe! Dictionary AD
HEASARC Education & Outreach
astronomy: Black hole physics
fsturk.net Astronomy - Black Holes
Astronomy: Black Holes
Black Holes: The Ultimate Abyss--Astronomy/Space lesson plan ...
Space Science and Astronomy Headlines
astronomy black hole
Astronomy Today - Space Science - Black Holes

Star Spectroscopy

The  Spectrum of various Gas Discharges. http://home.achilles.net/~jtalbot/data/elements/index.html
Chemistry of Stars: Spectroscopy
Keyword Index listing for S
[47.02] The Smallest Mass Ratio Young Star Spectroscopic Binaries

Simple CCD Spetrographs
Laser Star Astrophysics
Imagine the Universe! Dictionary
Amateur Spectroscopy - http://www.astroman.fsnet.co.uk/begin.htm
Laser Stars - History of Astronomical Spectroscopy

Astronomy Camp Spectroscopy
Learning from Light Educational Home Page
ScienceLives! Online - Astronomy - Spectroscopy
Leeds : Physics & Astronomy : Spectroscopy
Astronomical spectroscopy : National Maritime Museum
Forum for Amateur AstroSpectroscopy - Astronomical Spectroscopy ...
Sutherland Karoo South Africa, Observatory, Astronomy ...

Astronomical Spectroscopy
Astronomical spectroscopy - Wikipedia
starphysics - Amateur Astronomical Spectroscopy
Astronomical Spectroscopy
Amateur Astronomy Spectroscopy Forum http://users.erols.com/njastro/faas/
Bright Star Spectra http://www.erols.com/njastro/faas/pages/starcat.htm
COAA software http://www.ip.pt/coaa/software.htm
IRAF Software - Image Reduction & Analysis Facility ht
Windows Free Spectrum Analysis Software http://valerie.desnoux.free.fr/vspec/
Christian Buil - A great amateur spectroscopy sitehttp://astrosurf.com/buil/
Spectra of Gas Discharges http://home.achilles.net/~jtalbot/data/elements/index.html
Amateur Spectroscopy http://www.geocities.com/rlaude2000

Properties of Stars
The Problem with Spectroscopy
[PDF] Mira Variable Stars: Spectroscopic and Photometric Monitoring of ...
Quantitative Spectroscopy of WR and related stars

Spectral Classification of Stars-index
Spectroscopy: some applications
Photometry and spectroscopy of the central star of the Trifid ...
Optical Fiber-Fed Spectroscopy of Pulsating Variable Stars
[PDF] Spectroscopic Analysis of Delta Scuti Stars

Stellar Evolution

Astronomy HyperText Book: Stellar Evolution
Chandra :: Field Guide to X-ray Astronomy :: Stellar Evolution
Stellar Evolution on PC
theUK.com: Science and Health / Physics and Astronomy / Stellar ...
Astronomy Education at the ASP -- Site Update
Stellar Evolution Astronomy Stellar Evolution - Astronomy
Astronomy Today - Space Science - Stellar Evolution
Stellar Evolution Simulation
theUK.com: Science and Health / Physics and Astronomy / Stellar ...
MizMoz Directory - Astronomy Stellar Evolution
Astronomy 101/103 Web Simulations
Google Directory - Science > Astronomy > Stars > Stellar Evolution
Stellar Evolution: Main Sequence
AllRefer Encyclopedia - stellar evolution (Astronomy, General) ...
Astronomy: Stars and Stellar Evolution
Guide to Space & Astronomy
Stellar Evolution PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY
The Telson Spur: Field Nodes -- Astronomy (10): Galactic and ...
Astronomy Research Themes : Stellar Evolution
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
The Hertzsprung Russell Diagram
Hertzsprung-Russell diagram - Wikipedia
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram -- from Eric Weisstein's World of ...
Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
HR Diagram Description
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
AllRefer Encyclopedia - Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (Astronomy ...

Star Charts & Calendars
Abrams Sky Watcher's Diary
Astronomy What's Up This Month
Moon Phase Calendar 
National Geographic's Star Journey 
North American Skies
Old Farmer's Almanac Heavenly Details
Weather Underground: Wunderground.com Sky

Astronomy News, Star Charts, Space Pictures - Astronomy.com
Astronomy News, Star Charts, Space Pictures - Astronomy.com
Data Services
Skymaps.com - Publication Quality Sky Maps & Star Charts
Skymaps.com: Astronomy and Space Articles
ASTRONOMY WEBSITES Planets, astronomy software, news, star 
ASTRONOMY WEBSITES Planets, astronomy software, news, star
Online Astronomy
Planetarium Software

Sky and Telescope

Free Northern Sky Program


Download: Basic package HNSKY222.EXE


SEDS Messier Database
Planetary Nebula Sampler
AllRefer Encyclopedia - nebula (Astronomy, General) - Encyclopedia
AllRefer Encyclopedia - Orion Nebula (Astronomy, General) 
Nebulae - Zoom Astronomy
APOD: 2002 February 13 - The Great Nebula in Orion
APOD: 2003 May 10 - NGC 7293: The Helix Nebula
Nebulae Simplified
Links To Planetary Nebulae & Astronomy Resources
Astronomy Pictures and Posters - Stars and Nebula


Astronomical Images of Galaxies - Astronomy Pictures
Astronomy web site designed for the amateur astronomer
Astronomy 162: Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology
SEDS Messier Database
[sci.astro] Galaxies (Astronomy Frequently Asked Questions) (8/9)
[sci.astro] Galaxies (Astronomy Frequently Asked Questions) (8/9)
JPL Stars and Galaxies - Astronomy Data
Stars and Galaxies - Astronomy Data
Astronomy 123: Schombert


Astronomy For Kids
astronomyLINKS - solar system - comets - astronomy and space
astronomyLINKS - solar system - comets - astronomy and space
BAA Comet section
Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Collision with Jupiter
AllRefer Encyclopedia - comet : Structure of Comets (Astronomy
Astronomy gifs of asteroids and comets
Comets | Astronomy | Planets | Space Facts
David Hanon's Astronomical CCD Images
Comets Astronomy Solar System Comets - Astronomy Solar System


Meteors and Meteor Showers
SPECIAL REPORT: 2001 Leonid Meteor Shower
Leonid Meteor Storm! When, Where and How to Watch
The American Meteor Society
Meteors: Zoom Astronomy
Meteor Showers: Zoom Astronomy
Perseid Meteor Shower - A Spectacular Astronomy Fireworks Show
astronomyLINKS - solar system - meteors - specific showers 
Astronomy for Kids - Meteor Showers
Guide to Space & Astronomy


astronomyLINKS - solar system - asteroids - astronomy and spac
astronomyLINKS - satellites and missions - comets and asteroids 
Asteroids: Zoom Astronomy
Asteroids Astronomy Solar System Asteroids- Astronomy Solar System
AllRefer Encyclopedia - Trojan asteroids (Astronomy, General) 
Asteroids in our solar system
Yahoo! Directory Solar System > Comets, Meteors, and Asteroids
Astronomy for kids - learn about asteroids
Asteroids astronomy of our solar system
Astronomy For Kids


Venus transit sun Telescope losmandy mounts toucam philips green
Telescopes Astronomy newsletter what's new prices specials 
Sky and Telescope - The Essential Magazine of Astronomy
Astronomy Resources at STScI
Astronomy-Mall.com Home Page
Astromart - Your global astronomy resource
Welcome to the Gemini Observatory
OPT - Astronomy Telescopes, Accessories, CCD and Digital Cameras
KECK Mirror at Caltech Astronomy
astronomyLINKS - telescopes - astronomy and space directory, links

Large Telescopes
Orbiting Astronomical Observatories
Instrumentation at ESO
drawings of deepsky objects with large telescopes
BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Astronomy's next big thing
Astronomers Rejoice at Chilean Telescope's First Light
Title Details - Cambridge University Press
Australia Telescope National Facility
S*T*A*R Astronomy - Telescope Making Links
Telescope - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Space-based Telescopes
Orbiting Astronomical Observatories
NASA Technology Ground-based Observatory Guide
Yahoo! Directory Telescopes > Space-Based
Space Based Telescopes and Facilities
Astronomy.com | Terra Versus Space
Hubble Space Telescope: Research Links for Students
Amateur Astronomers to Put Telescope on International Space
Those Rings! Ground-Based Telescope Nabs Pics of Saturn to Rival 
Astronomy Now Online

LSU Libraries Physics and Astronomy Resources: Major Observatories
Archive of Astronomy Questions and Answers
Minnesota State University, Mankato: Astronomy Program
Research Guides by Subject - Insert Subject Here
Astronomy Links
Astronomy in the Coquimbo Region
Prairie Astronomy Club: Amateur Astronomy
MSN Encarta - Related Items - Telescope
Astronomy Links

Telescope Making

The Basics of ATM http://www.stellafane.com/atm/atm_main.htm
Design a Newtonian Telescope - JAVA

ATM Parts http://www.scopecity.com/tmc.htm
Kits http://www.newportglass.com/educkit.htm
Computer operated Telescopes http://www.bbastrodesigns.com/cot/cot.html
New possibilities for amateurs http://hep.fuw.edu.pl/~wrochna/astro/en/ccd.htm
Astronomical Observing with a Small Radio Telescope
S*T*A*R Astronomy - Telescope Making Links
Venus transit sun Telescope losmandy mounts toucam philips green
T-Quest Optical - Telescope, binoculars, astronomy
Optical Design Software: dbOptic - The Optical Design Database
Astromart - Your global astronomy resource
astronomyLINKS - telescope making - supplies - optics - astronomy 
Telescope Making
Amateur Astronomy Telescope Making
Google Directory - Science > Astronomy > Amateur > Amateur
Link Page


HOW IS HELIUM CREATED? In the modern Universe almost all new helium is created as a result of the nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars. On Earth it is created by the radioactive decay of much heavier elements (alpha particles are helium-4 nuclei produced by alpha-decay). After its creation, part of it is trapped with natural gas in concentrations up to 7% by volume. It is extracted from the natural gas by a low temperature separation process called fractional distillation. 

HOW MUCH HELIUM IS IN OUR ATMOSPHERE? Helium makes up about 0.0005% of the earth's atmosphere. This trace amount of helium is not gravitationally bound to the earth and is constantly lost to space. The earth's atmospheric helium is replaced by the decay of radioactive elements in the earth's crust. Alpha decay, one type of radioactive decay, produces particles called alpha particles. An alpha particle can become a helium atom once it captures two electrons from its surroundings. This newly formed helium can eventually work its way to the atmosphere through cracks in the crust. Helium is commercially recovered from natural gas deposits, mostly from Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas.

HOW DOES HYDROGEN COLLAPSE TO FORM A STAR? A star settles down to a long period of stability while the hydrogen at its center is converted into helium with the release of an enormous amount of energy. This stage is called the main-sequence stage. It is the star's mass that determines how they change.  But, stars do not all evolve in the same way. 

SMALL MASS STARS: Our knowledge of the evolution of these stars is purely theoretical because their main sequence stage lasts longer than the present age of the Universe, so none of the stars in this mass range has evolved this far! We believe that the evolution will proceed as for the medium mass stars except that the temperature in the interior will never rise high enough for helium `burning' to start. The hydrogen will continue to `burn' in a shell but will eventually be all used up. The star will then just get cooler and cooler ending up after about 1,000,000,000,000 years as a `black dwarf'. 

MEDIUM MASS STARS: Stars similar in mass to the Sun `burn' hydrogen into helium in their centers during the main-sequence phase but eventually there is no hydrogen left in the centre to provide the necessary radiation pressure to balance gravity. The centre of the star thus contracts until it is hot enough for helium to be converted into carbon. The hydrogen in a shell continues to `burn' into helium but the outer layers of the star have to expand. This makes the star appear brighter and cooler and it becomes a red giant.

HIGH MASS STARS: There are very few stars with masses greater than five times the mass of the Sun but their evolution ends in a very spectacular fashion. As was said above, these stars go through their evolutionary stages very quickly compared to the Sun. Like medium mass stars, they `burn' all the hydrogen at their centers and continue with a hydrogen `burning' shell and central helium `burning'. They become brighter and cooler on the outside and are called red supergiants. Carbon `burning' can develop at the star's centre and a complex set of element `burning' shells can develop towards the end of the star's life. During this stage many different chemical elements will be produced in the star and the central temperature will approach 100,000,000 degrees Kelvin.




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